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Parkinson Disease (PD)

(Parkinson's Disease)


Alex Rajput

, MD, University of Saskatchewan;

Eric Noyes

, MD, University of Saskatchewan

Reviewed/Revised Feb 2024
Topic Resources

Parkinson disease is a slowly progressive degenerative disorder of specific areas of the brain. It is characterized by tremor when muscles are at rest (resting tremor), increased muscle tone (stiffness, or rigidity), slowness of voluntary movements, and difficulty maintaining balance (postural instability). In many people, thinking becomes impaired, or dementia develops.

  • Parkinson disease results from degeneration in the part of the brain that helps coordinate movements.

  • Often, the most obvious symptom is a tremor that occurs when muscles are relaxed.

  • Muscles become stiff, movements become slow and uncoordinated, and balance is easily lost.

  • Doctors base the diagnosis on symptoms.

  • General measures (such as simplifying daily tasks), medications (such as levodopa plus carbidopa), and sometimes surgery can help, but the disease is progressive, eventually causing severe disability and immobility.

Parkinson Disease

Parkinson disease is the second most common degenerative disorder of the central nervous system after Alzheimer disease.

Parkinson disease commonly begins between the ages of 50 and 79. Rarely, it occurs in children or adolescents.

Parkinsonism Parkinsonism Parkinsonism refers to symptoms of Parkinson disease (such as slow movements and tremors) that are caused by another condition. Parkinsonism is caused by brain disorders, brain injuries, or... read more has the same symptoms as Parkinson disease, but the symptoms are caused by various other conditions, such as multiple system atrophy Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) Multiple system atrophy is a progressive, fatal disorder that causes symptoms resembling those of Parkinson disease (parkinsonism), loss of coordination, and malfunction of internal body processes... read more , progressive supranuclear palsy Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) Progressive supranuclear palsy is characterized by slow movements, muscle stiffness (rigidity), problems moving the eyes, and a tendency to fall backward. Progressive supranuclear palsy progresses... read more , stroke Overview of Stroke A stroke occurs when an artery to the brain becomes blocked or ruptures, resulting in death of an area of brain tissue due to loss of its blood supply (cerebral infarction). Symptoms occur suddenly... read more , head injury Overview of Head Injuries Head injuries that involve the brain are particularly concerning. Common causes of head injuries include falls, motor vehicle crashes, assaults, and mishaps during sports and recreational activities... read more , or certain medications and other substances. Parkinsonism caused by conditions other than Parkinson disease often involve symptoms of another disease (such as severe changes in blood pressure as occurs in multiple system atrophy Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) Multiple system atrophy is a progressive, fatal disorder that causes symptoms resembling those of Parkinson disease (parkinsonism), loss of coordination, and malfunction of internal body processes... read more ).

Changes inside the brain

In Parkinson disease, nerve cells in part of the basal ganglia (called the substantia nigra) degenerate.

The basal ganglia are collections of nerve cells located deep within the brain. They help do the following:

  • Initiate and smooth out intended (voluntary) muscle movements

  • Suppress involuntary movements

  • Coordinate changes in posture

When the brain initiates an impulse to move a muscle (for example, to lift an arm), the impulse passes through the basal ganglia. Like all nerve cells, those in the basal ganglia release chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) that trigger the next nerve cell in the pathway to send an impulse. A key neurotransmitter in the basal ganglia is dopamine. Its overall effect is to increase nerve impulses to muscles.

When nerve cells in the basal ganglia degenerate, they produce less dopamine, and the number of connections between nerve cells in the basal ganglia decreases. As a result, the basal ganglia cannot control muscle movement as they normally do, leading to tremor, slow movement (bradykinesia), a tendency to move less (hypokinesia), problems with posture and walking, and some loss of coordination.

Locating the Basal Ganglia

The basal ganglia are collections of nerve cells located deep within the brain. They include the following:

  • Caudate nucleus (a C-shaped structure that tapers to a thin tail)

  • Putamen

  • Globus pallidus (located next to the putamen)

  • Subthalamic nucleus

  • Substantia nigra

The basal ganglia help initiate and smooth out muscle movements, suppress involuntary movements, and coordinate changes in posture.

Locating the Basal Ganglia

Causes of Parkinson Disease

Usually, no specific cause can be identified.

In Parkinson disease, synuclein (a protein in the brain that helps nerve cells communicate) forms clumps called Lewy bodies in nerve cells. Lewy bodies consist of synuclein that has changed shape (misfolded) and become abnormal. Synuclein can accumulate in several regions of the brain, particularly in the substantia nigra (deep within the cerebrum) and interfere with brain function. Lewy bodies often accumulate in other parts of the brain and nervous system, suggesting that they may be involved in other disorders. In dementia with Lewy bodies Dementia With Lewy Bodies and Parkinson Disease Dementia Dementia with Lewy bodies is progressive loss of mental function characterized by the development of Lewy bodies in nerve cells. Parkinson disease dementia is loss of mental function characterized... read more , Lewy bodies form throughout the outer layer of the brain (cerebral cortex). Lewy bodies may also be involved in Alzheimer disease Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease is a progressive loss of mental function, characterized by degeneration of brain tissue, including loss of nerve cells, the accumulation of an abnormal protein called beta-amyloid... read more , possibly explaining why about one third of people with Parkinson disease have symptoms of Alzheimer disease and why some people with Alzheimer disease develop parkinsonian symptoms.

About 10 to 25% of people with Parkinson disease have relatives who have or have had the disease. Also, several gene mutations that can cause Parkinson disease have been identified.

There is growing evidence that Parkinson disease is part of a more widespread disorder. In this disorder, synuclein accumulates not only in the brain but also in nerve cells in the heart, esophagus, intestines, and elsewhere. As a result, this disorder causes other symptoms such light-headedness when a person stands up, constipation, and difficulty swallowing, depending on where synuclein accumulates.

Did You Know...

  • Many other disorders and medications and other substances can cause symptoms similar to those of Parkinson disease.

  • Parkinson disease is sometimes hard to diagnose in older adults because aging causes some of the same symptoms.

Symptoms of Parkinson Disease

Usually, Parkinson disease begins subtly and progresses gradually.

The first symptoms are usually

  • Tremors

  • Problems with movement or a reduced sense of smell

Tremors typically have the following characteristics:

  • Are coarse and rhythmic

  • Usually occur in one hand while the hand is at rest (a resting tremor)

  • Often involve the wrist and fingers moving as if they are rolling small objects around (called pill-rolling)

  • Decrease when the hand is moving purposefully and disappear completely during sleep

  • May be worsened by emotional stress or fatigue

  • May eventually progress to the other hand, the arms, and the legs

  • May also affect the jaws, tongue, forehead, and eyelids and, to a lesser degree, the voice

In some people, a tremor never develops. Sometimes the tremor becomes less obvious as the disease progresses and muscles become stiffer.

Parkinson disease typically also causes the following symptoms:

  • Stiffness (rigidity): Muscles become stiff, making movement difficult. When a doctor tries to bend the person's forearm back or straighten it out, the arm resists being moved and, when it moves, it starts and stops, as it is being ratcheted (called cogwheel rigidity).

  • Slowed movements: Movements become slow and smaller and are difficult to initiate. Thus, people tend to move less. When they move less, moving becomes more difficult because joints become stiff and muscles weaken.

  • Difficulty maintaining balance and posture: Posture becomes stooped, and balance is difficult to maintain. Thus, people tend to topple forward or backward. Because movements are slow, people often cannot move their hands quickly enough to break a fall. These problems tend to develop later in the disease.

Walking becomes difficult, especially taking the first step. Once started, people often shuffle, taking short steps, keeping their arms bent at the waist, and swinging their arms little or not at all. While walking, some people have difficulty stopping or turning. When the disease is advanced, some people suddenly stop walking because they feel as if their feet are glued to the ground (called freezing). Other people unintentionally and gradually quicken their steps, breaking into a stumbling run to avoid falling. This symptom is called festination.

Stiffness and decreased mobility can contribute to muscle ache and fatigue. Having stiff muscles interferes with many movements: turning over in bed, getting in or out of a car, and standing up from a deep chair. Usual daily tasks (such as dressing, combing the hair, eating, and brushing the teeth) take longer.

Because people often have difficulty controlling the small muscles of the hands, daily tasks, such as buttoning a shirt and tying shoelaces, become increasingly difficult. Most people with Parkinson disease have shaky, tiny handwriting (micrographia) because initiating and sustaining each stroke of the pen is difficult. People may mistakenly think of these symptoms as weakness. However, strength and sensation are usually normal.

The face becomes less expressive (masklike) because the facial muscles that control expression do not move as much as they normally would. This lack of expression may be mistaken for depression, or it may cause depression to be overlooked. (Depression is common among people with Parkinson disease.) Eventually, the face can take on a blank stare with the mouth open, and the eyes may not blink often. Often, people drool or choke because the muscles in the face and throat are stiff, making swallowing difficult. People often speak softly in a monotone and may stutter because they have difficulty articulating words.

Parkinson disease also causes other symptoms:

Mental symptoms, including psychotic symptoms, may be caused by Parkinson disease or by a medication used to treat it.

The medications used to treat Parkinson disease (see table ) can also cause problems, such as obsessive-compulsive behavior or difficulty controlling urges, resulting, for example, in compulsive gambling or collecting.

Diagnosis of Parkinson Disease

  • A doctor's evaluation

  • Sometimes computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging

  • Sometimes use of levodopa to see whether it helps

Parkinson disease is likely if people have the following:

  • Fewer, slow movements

  • The characteristic tremor

  • Muscle rigidity

  • Clear and long-lasting (sustained) improvement in response to levodopa

Mild, early disease may be difficult for doctors to diagnose because it usually begins subtly. Diagnosis is especially difficult in older adults because aging can cause some of the same problems as Parkinson disease, such as loss of balance, slow movements, muscle stiffness, and stooped posture. Sometimes essential tremor Essential tremor A tremor is an involuntary, rhythmic, shaking movement of part of the body, such as the hands, head, vocal cords, trunk, or legs. Tremors occur when muscles repeatedly contract and relax. (See... read more is misdiagnosed as Parkinson disease.

To exclude other causes of the symptoms, doctors ask about previous disorders, exposure to toxins, and use of drugs that could cause parkinsonism.

Physical examination

During the physical examination, doctors ask people to do certain movements, which can help establish the diagnosis. For example, in people with Parkinson disease, the tremor disappears or lessens when doctors ask them to touch their nose with their finger. Also, people with the disease have difficulty performing rapidly alternating movements, such as placing their hands on their thighs, then rapidly turning their hands over back and forth several times.


No tests or imaging procedures can directly confirm the diagnosis. However, computed tomography Computed Tomography (CT) Computed tomography (CT) is a type of medical imaging that combines a series of x-rays to create cross-sectional, detailed images of internal structures. In computed tomography (CT), which used... read more Computed Tomography (CT) (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a type of medical imaging that uses a strong magnetic field and very high frequency radio waves to produce highly detailed images. During an MRI, a computer... read more Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) (MRI) may be done to look for a structural disorder that may be causing the symptoms. Single-photon emission computed tomography Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) Radionuclide scanning is a type of medical imaging that produces images by detecting radiation after a radioactive material is administered. During a radionuclide scan, a small amount of a radionuclide... read more (SPECT) and positron emission tomography Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Positron emission tomography (PET) is a type of medical imaging called radionuclide scanning. By detecting radiation after a radioactive material is administered, PET creates images that can... read more Positron Emission Tomography (PET) (PET) can detect brain abnormalities typical of the disease. However, SPECT and PET are currently used only in research facilities and do not distinguish Parkinson disease from other disorders that cause the same symptoms (parkinsonism).

If the diagnosis is unclear, doctors may give the person levodopa, a medication used to treat Parkinson disease. If levodopa results in clear improvement, Parkinson disease is likely.

Treatment of Parkinson Disease

  • General measures to manage symptoms

  • Physical and occupational therapy

  • Levodopa/carbidopa and other medications

  • Sometimes surgery (including deep brain stimulation)

General measures used to treat Parkinson disease can help people function better.

Many medications can make movement easier and enable people to function effectively for many years. The mainstay of treatment for Parkinson disease is

  • Levodopa plus carbidopa

Other medications are generally less effective than levodopa, but they may benefit some people, particularly if levodopa is not tolerated or is inadequate. However, no medication can cure the disease.

Two or more medications may be needed. For older adults, doses are often reduced. Medications that cause or worsen symptoms, particularly antipsychotic medications, are avoided.

The medications used to treat Parkinson disease can have troublesome side effects. If people notice any unusual effects (such as difficulty controlling urges or confusion), they should report them to their doctor. They should not stop taking a medication unless their doctor tells them to. If some medications used to treat Parkinson disease (such as levodopa/carbidopa) are stopped suddenly, they can cause neuroleptic malignant-like syndrome Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is confusion or unresponsiveness, muscle rigidity, high body temperature, and other symptoms that occur when certain antipsychotic (neuroleptic) drugs or anti-vomiting... read more , with high fever, high blood pressure, muscle stiffness, muscle damage, and confusion. This syndrome can be life threatening.

Deep brain stimulation, a surgical procedure, is considered if people have advanced disease but no dementia or psychiatric symptoms and medications are ineffective or have severe side effects.

General measures

Various simple measures can help people with Parkinson disease maintain mobility and independence:

  • Continuing to do as many daily activities as possible

  • Following a program of regular exercise

  • Simplifying daily tasks—for example, having buttons on clothing replaced with Velcro fasteners or buying shoes with Velcro fasteners

  • Using assistive devices, such as zipper pulls and button hooks

Simple changes around the home can make it safer for people with Parkinson disease:

  • Removing throw rugs to prevent tripping

  • Installing grab bars in bathrooms and railings in hallways and other locations to reduce the risk of falling

For constipation, the following can help:

  • Consuming a high-fiber diet, including such foods as prunes and fruit juices

  • Exercising

  • Drinking plenty of fluids

  • Using osmotic laxatives (such as polyethylene glycol), stool softeners (such as senna concentrate), supplements (such as psyllium), or stimulant laxatives (such as bisacodyl taken by mouth) to keep bowel movements regular

Difficulty swallowing may limit food intake, so the diet must be nutritious. Making an effort to sniff more deeply may improve the ability to smell, enhancing the appetite.


Traditionally, levodopa, which is given with carbidopa, is the first medication used to treat Parkinson disease. These medications, taken by mouth, are the mainstay of treatment for Parkinson disease.

But when taken for a long time, levodopa may have side effects and become less effective. So some experts have suggested that using other medications first and delaying use of levodopa might help. However, evidence now indicates that the side effects and reduced effectiveness after long-term use probably occur because Parkinson disease is worsening and are not related to when the medication was begun. Still, because levodopa may become less effective after several years of use, doctors may prescribe another medication for people under 60, who will be taking medications to treat Parkinson disease for a long time. Other medications that may be used include amantadine and dopamine agonists (medications that act like dopamine, stimulating the same receptors on brain cells). Such medications are used because production of dopamine is decreased in Parkinson disease.

Levodopa reduces muscle stiffness, improves movement, and often substantially reduces tremor. Taking levodopa produces dramatic improvement in people with Parkinson disease. The medication enables many people with mild disease to return to a nearly normal level of activity and enables some people who are confined to bed to walk again.

Levodopa is a dopamine precursor. That is, it is converted into dopamine in the body. Conversion occurs in the basal ganglia, where levodopa helps compensate for the decrease in dopamine due to Parkinson disease. However, before levodopa reaches the brain, some of it is converted to dopamine in the intestine and in the blood. Having dopamine in the intestine and blood increases the risk of side effects such as vomiting, orthostatic hypotension, and flushing. Carbidopa is given with levodopa to prevent levodopa from being converted to dopamine before it reaches the basal ganglia. As a result, there are fewer side effects, and more dopamine is available to the brain.

Domperidone can be used to treat the side effects of levodopa (and other antiparkinsonian medications), such as nausea, vomiting, and orthostatic hypotension. Domperidone, like carbidopa, reduces the amount of levodopa that is converted into dopamine in the intestine and cardiovascular system (heart and blood vessels), where levodopa increases the risk of side effects. Domperidone is not readily available in the United States.

To determine the best dose of levodopa for a particular person, doctors must balance control of the disease with the development of side effects, which may limit the amount of levodopa the person can tolerate. These side effects include

  • Nausea

  • Vomiting

  • Light-headedness

  • Involuntary movements (of the mouth, face, and limbs) called dyskinesias

  • Nightmares

  • Hallucinations and paranoia (psychotic symptoms)

  • Changes in blood pressure

  • Confusion

  • Obsessive or compulsive behavior or difficulty controlling urges, for example, resulting in compulsive gambling or uncontrollable spending

Occasionally, levodopa is needed to maintain movement even though it is causing hallucinations, paranoia, or confusion. In such cases, certain antipsychotic medications Treatment of mental symptoms Parkinson disease is a slowly progressive degenerative disorder of specific areas of the brain. It is characterized by tremor when muscles are at rest (resting tremor), increased muscle tone... read more (such as quetiapine, clozapine, or pimavanserin) are used to lessen these side effects.

After taking levodopa for 5 or more years, more than half the people begin to alternate rapidly between a good response to the medication and no response—called on-off effects. Within seconds, people may change from being fairly mobile to being severely impaired and immobile. The periods of mobility after each dose become shorter, and symptoms may occur before the next scheduled dose—the off effects. Also, symptoms may be accompanied by involuntary movements due to levodopa use, including writhing or hyperactivity. One of the following can be used to control the off effects for a while:

  • Taking lower, more frequent doses

  • Switching to a form of levodopa that is released more gradually into the blood (a controlled-release formulation)

  • Adding a dopamine agonist or amantadine

However, after 15 to 20 years, the off effects become hard to suppress. Surgery is then considered.

A formulation of levodopa/carbidopa (available in Europe) can be given using a pump connected to a feeding tube inserted in the small intestine. The pump delivers levodopa continuously, thus keeping the level of medication about the same and making side effects less likely. This formulation is being studied as treatment for people who have severe symptoms that cannot be relieved by medications and who cannot be treated with brain surgery. This formulation appears to greatly reduce the off times and increase quality of life.

Other medications

Other medications are generally less effective than levodopa, but they may benefit some people with Parkinson disease, particularly if levodopa is not tolerated or is insufficient.

Dopamine agonists, which act like dopamine, may be useful at any stage of the disease. They include

  • Pramipexole and ropinirole (given by mouth)

  • Rotigotine (given through a skin patch)

  • Apomorphine (injected under the skin)

Side effects may limit the use of dopamine agonists taken by mouth. Patients who have Parkinson disease and take these medications have an increased risk of developing compulsive behavior, including compulsive gambling, excessive shopping, and overeating. In such cases, the dose is reduced, or the medication is stopped and another medication substituted.

Pramipexole and ropinirole are given by mouth. They can be used first instead of or with levodopa in people who are under 60 and have early Parkinson disease. However, when used alone. they are rarely effective for more than a few years. Or these medications can be used with levodopa in people with advanced Parkinson disease. These medications are usually taken 3 times a day. Daytime sleepiness is a common side effect.

A rotigotine skin patch is applied once a day. The patch is worn continuously for 24 hours, then removed and replaced. The patch should be placed in different locations each day to reduce risk of skin irritation. Rotigotine is used alone, early in the disease.

Because apomorphine is quick-acting, it is used to reverse the off effects of levodopa—when movement is difficult to initiate. Thus, this medication is called rescue therapy. It is usually used when people freeze in place, preventing them, for example, from walking. Affected people or another person (such as a family member) can inject apomorphine up to 5 times a day as needed. In some countries, apomorphine is available in a formulation that can be given using a pump to people who have severe symptoms when surgery is not an option. The pump is a small device that can be clipped to a belt or put in a pocket. A small tube from the pump is inserted under the skin. Apomorphine is pumped from the device through the tube under the skin. This system provides apomorphine automatically on a regular schedule.

Rasagiline and selegiline belong to a class of medications called monoamine oxidase inhibitors Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) Several types of medications can be used to treat depression: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors, serotonin modulators, and serotonin-norepinephrine... read more (MAO inhibitors). They slow the breakdown of levodopa into dopamine, thereby prolonging dopamine’s action in the body. These medications can be used alone to postpone the use of levodopa, but they are often given later to supplement levodopa. Theoretically, if taken with certain foods (such as certain cheeses), beverages (such as red wine), or drugs, MAO inhibitors can have a serious side effect called hypertensive crisis Classification of blood pressure High blood pressure (hypertension) is persistently high pressure in the arteries. Often no cause for high blood pressure can be identified, but sometimes it occurs as a result of an underlying... read more Classification of blood pressure . However, this effect is unlikely when Parkinson disease is being treated because the doses used are low and the type of MAO inhibitor used (MAO type B inhibitors), particularly rasagiline, is less likely to have this effect.

Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors (entacapone, opicapone, and tolcapone) slow the breakdown of levodopa and dopamine, prolonging their effects, and therefore appear to be a useful supplement to levodopa. These medications are used only with levodopa. Tolcapone is seldom used now because rarely, it damages the liver. However, tolcapone is stronger than entacapone and may be useful if off effects are severe or long-lasting.

Some anticholinergic Anticholinergic: What Does It Mean? Anticholinergic: What Does It Mean? medications are effective in reducing the severity of a tremor and can be used in the early stages of Parkinson disease or later to supplement levodopa. Commonly used anticholinergic medications include benztropine and trihexyphenidyl. Anticholinergic medications are particularly useful for very young people whose most troublesome symptom is a tremor. Doctors try to avoid using these medications in older adults because they also have troublesome side effects (such as confusion, drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, constipation, difficulty urinating, and loss of bladder control) and because these medications, when taken for a long time, increase the risk of mental decline. They may reduce tremor because they block the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and tremor is thought to be caused by an imbalance of acetylcholine (too much) and dopamine (too little).

Occasionally, other medications with anticholinergic effects, including some antihistamines and tricyclic antidepressants, are used, sometimes to supplement levodopa. However, because these medications are only mildly effective and because many anticholinergic effects are troublesome, these medications are seldom used to treat Parkinson disease. Nonetheless, tricyclic antidepressants Heterocyclic (including tricyclic) antidepressants Several types of medications can be used to treat depression: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors, serotonin modulators, and serotonin-norepinephrine... read more with anticholinergic effects may be useful in younger people who have depression and Parkinson disease.

Amantadine, a medication sometimes used to treat influenza, may be used alone to treat mild Parkinson disease or as a supplement to levodopa. Amantadine probably has many effects that make it work. For example, it stimulates nerve cells to release dopamine. It is used most often to help control the involuntary movements (dyskinesias) that are side effects of levodopa. It can also lessen tremors. If used alone, amantadine often loses its effectiveness after several months.


Deep brain stimulation

People with involuntary movements or on-off effects due to long-term use of levodopa may benefit from deep brain stimulation. Tiny electrodes are surgically implanted in part of the basal ganglia. The electrodes send small amounts of electricity to the specific area of the basal ganglia responsible for the tremors. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) is used to locate the specific area to be stimulated. By stimulating this part, deep brain stimulation often greatly reduces involuntary movements and tremors and shortens the off part of the on-off effects. Deep brain stimulation is available only at special centers.

Other procedures

High-intensity focused ultrasound uses MRI to identify areas of the brain affected by Parkinson disease. Then concentrated ultrasound waves are applied to the targeted area to destroy it. This procedure does not involve invasive surgery. This procedure can help control tremors and may help treat slowed movements and rigidity.

In some countries, doctors surgically remove a small part of the brain that is severely affected or use a tiny electrical probe to destroy that part of the brain.

These procedures may lessen symptoms.

If these procedures are unsuccessful, deep brain stimulation of a different part of the brain may be done.

Stem cells

Transplantation of stem cells into the brain, once thought to be a possible treatment for Parkinson disease, has been shown to be ineffective and to have troublesome side effects.

Treatment of mental symptoms

Psychotic and other mental symptoms, whether caused by Parkinson disease itself, a medication, or something else, are treated.

Certain antipsychotic medications—quetiapine, clozapine, or pimavanserin—are sometimes used to treat psychotic symptoms in older adults with Parkinson disease and dementia. These medications, unlike other antipsychotics, do not worsen the symptoms of Parkinson disease. They are well-tolerated by younger people and help control the psychotic symptoms that occur in people with Parkinson disease dementia Dementia With Lewy Bodies and Parkinson Disease Dementia Dementia with Lewy bodies is progressive loss of mental function characterized by the development of Lewy bodies in nerve cells. Parkinson disease dementia is loss of mental function characterized... read more or that may be caused by some of the medications used to treat Parkinson disease. Clozapine is most effective, but its use is limited because it has serious side effects (such as a low white blood cell count) and requires frequent blood tests to check for these effects. Recent evidence suggests that pimavanserin can effectively treat psychotic symptoms without worsening the symptoms of Parkinson disease. Also, frequent blood tests are not required.

Antidepressants are used to treat depression. Antidepressants with anticholinergic effects (such as amitriptyline) are sometimes used. They may also help lessen the tremor. However, many other antidepressants are very effective and have fewer side effects. They include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Several types of medications can be used to treat depression: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors, serotonin modulators, and serotonin-norepinephrine... read more (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, citalopram, and escitalopram, and other antidepressants Medications for depression Depression is a feeling of sadness and/or a decreased interest or pleasure in activities that becomes a disorder when it is intense enough to interfere with functioning. It may follow a recent... read more , such as venlafaxine, mirtazapine, selegiline, and bupropion.

Treatment of mental symptoms can help lessen problems with movement, improve quality of life, and sometimes delay the need for institutional care.

Caregiver and end-of-life issues

Because Parkinson disease is progressive, people eventually need help with normal daily activities, such as eating, bathing, dressing, and toileting. Caregivers can benefit from learning about the physical and psychologic effects of Parkinson disease and about ways to enable people to function as well as possible. Because such care is tiring and stressful, caregivers may benefit from support groups.

Eventually, most people with Parkinson disease become severely disabled and immobile. They may be unable to eat, even with assistance. Dementia develops in about one third of them. Because swallowing becomes increasingly difficult, death due to aspiration pneumonia Aspiration Pneumonia and Chemical Pneumonitis Aspiration pneumonia is lung infection caused by inhaling mouth secretions, stomach contents, or both. Chemical pneumonitis is lung irritation caused by inhalation of substances irritating or... read more (a lung infection due to inhaling fluids from the mouth or stomach) is a risk. For some people, a nursing home may be the best place for care.

More Information

The following English-language resources may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of these resources.

  • American Parkinson Disease Association, Inc. (APDA): This web site provides information to support and teach people who are affected by Parkinson disease, including caregivers. It also provides links to resources, such as support groups and exercise classes.

  • The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research: This web site provides information about its work to make sure government policies accelerate the development of new, improved therapies for Parkinson disease and about ways to increase quality of life for people with Parkinson disease and their families, including support groups and telemedicine.

  • Parkinson's Foundation (PDF): This web site describes Parkinson disease and its symptoms and provides tips for living with Parkinson disease and an opportunity for online community with other people who have Parkinson disease.

Drugs Mentioned In This Article

Generic Name Select Brand Names
INBRIJA, Larodopa
Cafcit, NoDoz, Stay Awake, Vivarin
GaviLax, GIALAX , GlycoLax, Healthylax, MiraLax, Visine Dry Eye Relief, Vita Health
Black Draught , Ex-Lax, Fletchers Laxative, Geri-kot, Lax-Pills, Little Remedies for Tummys, OneLAX, Perdiem, Plus PHARMA, Senexon, Senna, SennaGen , Senna-Lax , Senna-Tabs, Senna-Time, Sennatural, Senokot, Senokot Extra Strength , Senokot Xtra, SenoSol, SenoSol-X, Uni-Cenna
Fiber Therapy, GenFiber , Geri-Mucil, Hydrocil , Konsyl, Metamucil, Metamucil MultiHealth, Mucilin , Natural Fiber Laxative, Natural Fiber Therapy, Reguloid
Alophen, Bisac-Evac , Biscolax, Corrective Laxative for Women, Correctol, Dacodyl, Doxidan, Dulcolax, Ex-Lax Ultra, Feen-A-Mint , Fematrol , Femilax, Fleet, Laxative, OneLAX, Reliable Gentle Laxative, Veracolate
GOCOVRI, Osmolex ER, Symmetrel
Seroquel, Seroquel XR
Clozaril, Fazaclo, Versacloz
Mirapex, Mirapex ER
Requip, Requip XL
Carbex, Eldepryl, EMSAM, Zelapar
Elavil, Tryptanol, Vanatrip
Prozac, Prozac Weekly, Sarafem, Selfemra
Brisdelle, Paxil, Paxil CR, Pexeva
Effexor, Effexor XR, Venlafaxine
Remeron, Remeron SolTab
Aplenzin, Budeprion SR , Budeprion XL , Buproban, Forfivo XL, Wellbutrin, Wellbutrin SR, Wellbutrin XL, Zyban
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