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Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

By

Erika F. Brutsaert

, MD, New York Medical College

Last full review/revision Sep 2020| Content last modified Sep 2020
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People who go on a major alcohol binge often vomit repeatedly and stop eating. If the vomiting and starvation go on for a day or more, the liver's normal stores of sugar (glucose) decrease. The low glucose stores combined with lack of food intake cause low blood glucose levels. The low blood glucose levels decrease insulin secretion. Without insulin, most cells cannot get energy from the glucose that is in the blood. Cells still need energy to survive, so they switch to a back-up mechanism to obtain energy. Fat cells begin breaking down, producing compounds called ketones. Ketones provide some energy to cells but also make the blood too acidic (ketoacidosis). This ketoacidosis is similar to the ketoacidosis that occurs in diabetes except that, unlike in diabetic ketoacidosis Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis is an acute complication of diabetes that occurs mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and a characteristic... read more , blood glucose levels are low.

Symptoms of Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

Diagnosis of Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

  • Blood and urine tests

Doctors base the diagnosis on the characteristic symptoms and their relation to alcohol abuse combined with laboratory test results that show increased amounts of ketones and acid in the bloodstream but normal or low blood glucose levels.

Treatment of Alcoholic Ketoacidosis

  • Thiamin and other vitamins and minerals given by vein

  • Intravenous saline and glucose

To treat alcoholic ketoacidosis, doctors give people thiamin (vitamin B1) by vein (intravenously) followed by intravenous saline and glucose solution. Other vitamins and minerals, such as magnesium, are added to the saline solution.

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Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a complication of diabetes. It occurs mostly in people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when a lack of insulin prevents glucose in the bloodstream from entering the cells. Without adequate glucose, the cells burn fat for energy, producing compounds called ketones. Ketones supply some energy, but they also make the blood too acidic. There are several causes of ketoacidosis. Which of the following is a cause of ketoacidosis?
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