Merck Manual

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Daniel F. Danzl

, MD, University of Louisville School of Medicine

Reviewed/Revised Dec 2022
Topic Resources

Frostbite is a cold injury in which an area of the body is frozen.

  • Extreme cold may freeze tissues, destroying them and sometimes the surrounding tissues.

  • The area may be numb, white, swollen, blistered, or black and leathery.

  • The area is rewarmed in warm water as soon as possible.

  • Most areas heal over time, but sometimes surgery is required to remove dead tissue.

The damage caused by frostbite results from a combination of factors. Freezing kills some cells, but others survive. Because cold causes blood vessels to narrow, tissue that is near the frozen area but not itself frozen may be damaged as a result of the decreased blood flow. Sometimes cold also causes clots to form in small blood vessels in this tissue. These clots may limit blood flow so much that the tissue dies. When blood flow returns to the affected area, the damaged tissues release a number of chemical substances that promote inflammation. Inflammation worsens the damage caused by the cold. In addition, toxic substances are released into the bloodstream as frozen tissue is warmed.

Exposure to below-freezing temperatures puts any part of the body at risk of frostbite. The risk of frostbite damage depends on how cold it is and how long the part was exposed. People at greatest risk of developing frostbite are those who have poor circulation because of diabetes Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Diabetes mellitus is a disorder in which the body does not produce enough or respond normally to insulin, causing blood sugar (glucose) levels to be abnormally high. Symptoms of diabetes may... read more or arteriosclerosis Arteriosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a condition in which patchy deposits of fatty material (atheromas or atherosclerotic plaques) develop in the walls of medium-sized and large arteries, leading to reduced or... read more Arteriosclerosis , blood vessel spasm (which may be caused by smoking, some neurologic disorders, or certain drugs), or constriction of blood flow by gloves or boots that are too tight. Exposed hands and feet and an exposed face and ears are most vulnerable. Contact with wetness or metal accelerates freezing and is particularly dangerous.

Symptoms of Frostbite

Symptoms of frostbite vary with the depth and amount of tissue frozen. Shallow frostbite results in a numb white patch of skin that peels after warming. Slightly deeper frostbite causes blisters and swelling of the affected area. Deeper freezing causes the extremity to feel numb, cold, and hard. The area is pale and cold. Blisters often appear. Blisters filled with clear fluid indicate milder damage than do blisters filled with blood-stained fluid.

Dead tissue may cause the extremity to become gray and soft (wet gangrene). If wet gangrene develops, in many cases the extremity must be amputated. More frequently, the area of dead tissue becomes black and leathery (dry gangrene).

Diagnosis of Frostbite

  • A health care provider's examination

  • A history of exposure to cold

Frostbite is diagnosed by its typical appearance and occurrence after significant exposure to cold. Sometimes frostbite appears the same as nonfreezing injuries for the first few days. After a period of time, frostbitten tissue develops characteristics that differentiate it from nonfreezing tissue injuries Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries In nonfreezing tissue injuries, parts of the skin are chilled but not frozen. Nonfreezing tissue injuries include frostnip, immersion foot, and chilblains. (See also Overview of Cold Injuries... read more Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries .

Treatment of Frostbite

  • Warming the person

  • Immersing the frostbitten area in warm water

Outside of the hospital

People who have frostbite should be covered with a warm blanket because they may also have hypothermia Hypothermia Hypothermia (dangerously low body temperature) is often regarded as a cold injury, because it can be caused or made worse by exposure to cold surroundings. Being in an environment that is too... read more . When possible, warming of the frostbitten area should begin immediately. The area is immersed in warm water that is no hotter than can be comfortably tolerated by the caregiver (98.6 to 102.2° F or about 37 to 39° C). Rubbing the area (for example, with snow) should be avoided because it leads to further tissue damage. Because the area has no sensation, people cannot tell if a burn is developing. Thus, the area should not be warmed in front of a fire or with a heating pad or electric blanket.

Did You Know...

  • An area that has frostbite should not be rubbed (for example, with snow) because rubbing further damages the tissue.

It is more damaging to thaw and refreeze tissue than to allow it to remain frozen. Thus, if people with frostbite must be re-exposed to freezing conditions, particularly if they must walk on frostbitten feet, the tissue should not be thawed. Thawed feet are more vulnerable to damage from walking. Also, every effort should be made to protect the damaged tissue from rubbing, constriction, or further damage. The feet are usually cleansed, dried, and covered. People are kept warm and given an analgesic if possible. They are taken to a hospital as soon as possible.


In the hospital

In the hospital, warming is begun or continued. Full rewarming takes about 15 to 30 minutes. During rewarming, people are encouraged to move the affected part gently. The frostbitten area becomes extremely painful as it is warmed, so an injection of an opioid analgesic may be necessary. Blisters should not be broken. If blisters break, they should be covered with antibiotic ointment.

Once the tissue is warmed, the frostbitten area should be gently washed, dried, wrapped in sterile bandages, and kept meticulously clean and dry to prevent infection. Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen by mouth or aloe vera gel applied topically, help relieve the inflammation. Infection requires use of antibiotics, although some health care providers try to prevent infection from occurring by giving antibiotics to all people with deep frostbite. Some health care providers also use drugs given into a vein or artery to improve circulation to the affected area, although these forms of treatment are beneficial only in the first few days after injury. Health care providers may give tetanus toxoid Tetanus Tetanus results from a toxin produced by the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium tetani. The toxin makes muscles contract involuntarily and become rigid. Tetanus usually develops after a wound... read more if the person has not been vaccinated against tetanus or is overdue for a tetanus booster.

After hospital discharge

People need to eat a healthy diet to ensure the body produces enough heat.

Whirlpool baths with warm water (about 98.6° F, or 37° C) three times a day followed by gentle drying, rest, and time are the best ongoing treatments. Most people slowly improve over several months, although amputation is sometimes necessary to remove the dead tissue. Because frostbite may appear to affect a larger area and to be more severe than it will weeks or months later, the decision to amputate is usually postponed for several months until the area has had time to heal. Sometimes an imaging test, such as radionuclide scanning, microwave thermography, or a laser-Doppler flow study, helps determine which areas may recover and which will not. Areas that will not recover require amputation. Some people develop numbness or oversensitivity to cold after frostbite heals.

Drugs Mentioned In This Article

Generic Name Select Brand Names
Advil, Advil Children's, Advil Children's Fever, Advil Infants', Advil Junior Strength, Advil Migraine, Caldolor, Children's Ibuprofen, ElixSure IB, Genpril , Ibren , IBU, Midol, Midol Cramps and Body Aches, Motrin, Motrin Children's, Motrin IB, Motrin Infants', Motrin Junior Strength, Motrin Migraine Pain, PediaCare Children's Pain Reliever/Fever Reducer IB, PediaCare Infants' Pain Reliever/Fever Reducer IB, Samson-8
No brand name available
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