Bladder Injuries

ByNoel A. Armenakas, MD, Weill Cornell Medical School
Reviewed/Revised Feb 2023

A bladder injury often occurs when the pelvis is injured, as in a high-speed motor vehicle crash or a fall. Penetrating wounds, usually resulting from gunshots, can rarely injure the bladder. In addition, a bladder injury may occur unintentionally during surgery involving the lower abdomen or pelvis (such as removal of the uterus [hysterectomy], cesarean delivery, or removal of the colon [colectomy]).

(See Overview of Urinary Tract and Genital Injury.)


If bladder injuries are not promptly treated, complications such as the following may develop:

  • Infection

  • Persistent bleeding in the urine (hematuria)

  • Frequent and urgent urination

  • Leakage of urine from the urinary tract into surrounding tissues

  • Kidney failure

  • Abnormal opening between the bladder and an internal organ, such as the vagina, colon or ureter (fistula)

  • Uncontrollable loss of urine (urinary incontinence)

Symptoms of Bladder Injuries

The most common symptoms of a bladder injury are visible blood in the urine, difficulty in urinating, and pain and distention (swelling) in the pelvis and lower abdomen or during urination. If the lowermost portion of the bladder (where the muscle that helps to control urination is located) has been injured, the person may experience urinary incontinence.

Diagnosis of Bladder Injuries

  • Cystography, usually with computed tomography (CT) or standard x-rays

The diagnosis of a bladder injury is best established by cystography, a procedure in which a radiopaque contrast agent, a liquid that is visible on x-rays, is injected into the bladder and CT or standard x-rays are used to look for leakage (see Imaging Tests of the Urinary Tract). Bladder injuries that occur during a surgical procedure are usually recognized promptly at the time of surgery, so imaging tests of the bladder are usually not needed.

Treatment of Bladder Injuries

  • Catheterization to drain bladder

  • Sometimes surgery

Minor bladder injuries, either bruises or select small tears (lacerations), may be treated by inserting a catheter into the urethra for 5 to 10 days. The catheter continuously drains urine so the bladder does not fill up, which makes it easier for the bladder to heal.

For more extensive bladder injuries or any injury resulting in leakage of urine into the abdominal cavity, surgery should be done to determine the extent of the injury and to repair all tears. The urine can then be more effectively drained from the bladder using one or, rarely, two catheters. The catheters are inserted through the urethra (a transurethral catheter) and/or directly into the bladder through the skin over the lower abdomen (a suprapubic catheter). These catheters are removed in 7 to 10 days or once the bladder has healed satisfactorily. If complications develop, they must be treated.

When a bladder injury is recognized during a surgical procedure, it should be treated at that time.

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