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Shoulder Injuries

By

Paul L. Liebert

, MD, Tomah Memorial Hospital, Tomah, WI

Last full review/revision Feb 2020| Content last modified Feb 2020
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Anatomy of a Shoulder Joint

Anatomy of a Shoulder Joint
Views of Shoulder

The shoulder is a ball-and-socket type joint (so is the hip joint). The ball at the top (head) of the upper arm bone (humerus) fits into the socket of the shoulder blade (scapula), and the ball-and-socket joint allows the arm to move in all directions. The rotator cuff consists of the muscles that attach the shoulder blade to the head of the humerus. The rotator cuff strengthens the shoulder joint and helps rotate the upper arm.

The glenoid labrum is a lip of strong connective tissue at the rim of the socket of the shoulder joint. The labrum helps keep the ball securely in the socket.

When people injure their shoulder, doctors can often diagnose the problem based on the physical examination. However, sometimes x-rays or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is needed.

Many shoulder injuries resolve with rest followed by rehabilitation exercises. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen) may also be used for short-term pain relief (for up to 72 hours). If pain persists for longer than 72 hours, the person should be referred to a specialist to determine if additional treatment (for example, corticosteroid injection or surgery) is needed.

Exercises to Strengthen Shoulder Muscles

Drugs Mentioned In This Article

Generic Name Select Brand Names
ADVIL, MOTRIN IB
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Fractures of the Jaw and Midface
Fractures to one or more facial structures can result from a single injury. Jaw fractures may occur to the mandible, or lower jaw, or to the maxilla, bone of the upper jaw. Other structures susceptible to fracture include the eye sockets, nose, and cheek bones. Which of the following facial structures is most likely to fracture if a person falls from a great height or hits the windshield of a car face-first during a motor vehicle accident?
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