Hepatitis C is spread through contact with blood or other bodily fluids of infected people, as occurs when people share unsterilized needles to inject illicit drugs.
Acute hepatitis C often causes no symptoms
Doctors diagnose acute hepatitis C based on blood tests.
No vaccine is available.
Often, no specific treatment is recommended for acute hepatitis C.
(See also Overview of Hepatitis Overview of Hepatitis Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. (See also Overview of Acute Viral Hepatitis and Overview of Chronic Hepatitis.) Hepatitis is common throughout the world. Hepatitis can be Acute (short-lived) read more , Overview of Acute Viral Hepatitis Overview of Acute Viral Hepatitis Acute viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, generally meaning inflammation caused by infection with one of the five hepatitis viruses. In most people, the inflammation begins suddenly... read more , and Hepatitis C, Chronic Hepatitis C, Chronic Chronic hepatitis C is inflammation of the liver that is caused by the hepatitis C virus and that has lasted more than 6 months. Hepatitis C often causes no symptoms until after it has badly... read more .)
In the United States, over 4,100 cases of acute hepatitis C were reported in 2019. However, because many cases are not recognized or not reported, the actual number of new infections was estimated to be over 57,500 in 2019. The number of people with acute hepatitis C in the United States has been increasing since 2013.
For unknown reasons, about one of five people with alcoholic liver disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-related liver disease is liver damage caused by drinking too much alcohol for a long time. In general, the amount of alcohol consumed (how much, how often, and for how long) determines... read more has hepatitis C. In these people, alcohol and hepatitis C work together to worsen inflammation and scarring of the liver (cirrhosis Cirrhosis of the Liver Cirrhosis is the widespread distortion of the liver's internal structure that occurs when a large amount of normal liver tissue is permanently replaced with nonfunctioning scar tissue. The scar... read more ).
Transmission of hepatitis C
Hepatitis C is usually spread through contact with blood of an infected person. Hepatitis C is most commonly transmitted among people who share unsterilized needles to inject illicit drugs. The infection can also be transmitted through unsterilized needles used for tattoos and body piercings.
Transmission through blood transfusions or organ transplants is possible but is now rare. Such transmission was common in the United States until 1992, when widespread screening of the blood supply for the hepatitis C virus began.
Transmission through sexual contact is uncommon, as is transmission from an infected pregnant woman to her baby.
Why someone gets hepatitis C sometimes cannot be determined.
Symptoms of Acute Hepatitis C
At first, acute hepatitis C is usually mild and often causes no symptoms. Most people with acute hepatitis C are unaware that they are infected.
Some people with acute hepatitis C have typical symptoms of viral hepatitis. These symptoms include
Loss of appetite
A general feeling of illness (malaise)
Nausea and vomiting
Hepatitis C becomes chronic in about 75% of people. Chronic infection is usually mild. However, over time, about 20 to 30% of people with chronic hepatitis C Hepatitis C, Chronic Chronic hepatitis C is inflammation of the liver that is caused by the hepatitis C virus and that has lasted more than 6 months. Hepatitis C often causes no symptoms until after it has badly... read more develop cirrhosis Cirrhosis of the Liver Cirrhosis is the widespread distortion of the liver's internal structure that occurs when a large amount of normal liver tissue is permanently replaced with nonfunctioning scar tissue. The scar... read more . Liver cancer Hepatocellular Carcinoma Hepatocellular carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the liver cells and is the most common of the primary liver cancers. Having hepatitis B or hepatitis C or fatty liver disease, or drinking... read more may develop but usually only after cirrhosis has developed.
Diagnosis of Acute Hepatitis C
Doctors suspect acute hepatitis C when
People have symptoms of acute hepatitis.
Blood tests (liver tests) detect inflammation of the liver (hepatitis).
People have risk factors for getting hepatitis C.
Testing usually begins with blood tests to determine how well the liver is functioning and whether it is damaged (liver tests Liver Blood Tests Liver tests are blood tests that represent a noninvasive way to screen for the presence of liver disease (for example, viral hepatitis in donated blood) and to measure the severity and progress... read more ). Liver tests involve measuring the levels of liver enzymes and other substances produced by the liver.
If tests detect liver abnormalities, other blood tests are done to check for hepatitis virus infection. These blood tests can identify parts of specific viruses (antigens), specific antibodies Antibodies One of the body's lines of defense ( immune system) involves white blood cells (leukocytes) that travel through the bloodstream and into tissues, searching for and attacking microorganisms and... read more produced by the body to fight the virus, and genetic material (RNA or DNA) of the virus.
Blood tests are done to look for other causes of hepatitis.
The presence of antibodies to hepatitis C suggests that people have been infected with hepatitis C at some time in their life but are not necessarily still infected. If antibodies to hepatitis C are found, the hepatitis C RNA test is done to determine whether the infection is current or occurred in the past. Having antibodies to hepatitis C does not protect people from getting hepatitis C. (In contrast, having antibodies to hepatitis A and hepatitis B does protect against future infection with these viruses.)
Prevention of Acute Hepatitis C
High-risk behavior, such as sharing needles to inject drugs, should be avoided.
In the United States, all blood donors are tested for hepatitis C to prevent the spread of hepatitis C virus through transfusions. Also, even though the chance of getting hepatitis from transfusions is remote, doctors use transfusions only when there is no alternative. These measures have dramatically decreased the risk of getting hepatitis from a blood transfusion.
No vaccine for hepatitis C is currently available.
Treatment of Acute Hepatitis C
People with acute hepatitis C are treated with the same drugs used to treat chronic hepatitis C Treatment as soon as acute hepatitis C is diagnosed. These drugs may decrease the risk of acute hepatitis C becoming chronic.
People with hepatitis C should not drink alcohol because it can damage the liver further. There is no need to avoid certain foods or to limit activity. People should not take drugs that can damage the liver, such as acetaminophen.
Most people can safely return to work after jaundice resolves.
The following is an English-language resource that may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of this resource.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Hepatitis C: This web site provides links to an overview of hepatitis C (including definitions, and statistics) and information about transmission, symptoms, testing, treatment, and hepatitis C and employment, as well as links to information for health care practitioners. Accessed May 19, 2022.
Drugs Mentioned In This Article
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