Merck Manual

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Major Causes of Acute Kidney Injury

Major Causes of Acute Kidney Injury


Underlying Problem

Insufficient blood supply to the kidneys

Blood loss

Loss of large amounts of sodium and fluid

Physical injury that blocks blood vessels

Inadequate pumping of the heart (heart failure)

Liver failure Liver Failure (hepatorenal syndrome)

Drugs that decrease blood flow to the kidneys

Injury to the kidneys

Blood supply to the kidneys decreased long enough to damage the kidneys

Toxic substances (for example, drugs, iodinated contrast agents used in imaging tests, and poisons)

Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis (toxic effect to the kidneys caused by excessive muscle breakdown)

Allergic reactions (for example, to certain antibiotics)

Serious bodywide infection ( sepsis Sepsis and Septic Shock )

Obstructed urine flow

Tumor pressing on the urinary tract

Obstruction within the kidneys (for example, by crystals or stones such as oxalate or uric acid)