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Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

(Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder)


JoAnn V. Pinkerton

, MD, University of Virginia Health System

Reviewed/Revised Feb 2023
Topic Resources

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a group of physical and psychologic symptoms that start several days before a menstrual period begins and usually end a few hours after the first day of a period. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is a form of PMS in which symptoms are so severe that they interfere with work, social activities, or relationships.

  • PMS includes any combination of the following: becoming irritable, anxious, moody, or depressed or having headaches or sore, swollen breasts.

  • Doctors base the diagnosis on symptoms, which a woman is usually asked to record daily.

  • Consuming less sugar, salt, and caffeine and exercising may help relieve symptoms, as does taking pain relievers, birth control pills (sometimes), antidepressants, or certain nutritional supplements.

Because so many symptoms, such as a bad mood, irritability, bloating, and breast tenderness, have been ascribed to PMS, defining and identifying PMS can be difficult.

About 20 to 50% of women of childbearing age have PMS. About 5% have a severe form of PMS called premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Causes of Premenstrual Syndrome

PMS may occur partly because of the following:

  • Estrogen and progesterone levels fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. Some women are more sensitive to these fluctuations.

  • Some women may have a genetic make-up that makes them more susceptible to PMS.

  • Serotonin levels tend to be lower in women with PMS. Serotonin is a substance that helps nerve cells communicate (a neurotransmitter) and is thought to help regulate mood.

  • A deficiency of magnesium or calcium may contribute.

The fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone may affect other hormones, such as aldosterone, which helps regulate salt and water balance. Excess aldosterone can cause fluid retention and bloating.

Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome

The type and intensity of PMS symptoms vary from woman to woman and from month to month in the same woman. The various physical and psychologic symptoms of PMS can temporarily upset a woman’s life.

Symptoms may begin a few hours up to about 5 days before a menstrual period, and they often disappear completely a few hours after the period begins. Symptoms may last from a few hours to sometimes 10 days or more. During the years before menopause (called perimenopause Perimenopause symptoms Menopause is the permanent end of menstrual periods, ovulation, and fertility. For up to several years before and just after menopause, estrogen levels fluctuate widely, periods become irregular... read more Perimenopause symptoms ), women may have symptoms that persist through and after the menstrual period. Symptoms may become more severe during stress or during perimenopause. The symptoms of PMS may be followed each month by a painful period (cramps Menstrual Cramps Menstrual cramps are pains in the lowest part of the abdomen (pelvis), a few days before, during, or after a menstrual period. The pain tends to be most intense about 24 hours after periods... read more , or dysmenorrhea), particularly in adolescents.

The most common symptoms are irritability, anxiety, agitation, anger, insomnia, difficulty concentrating, lethargy, depression, and severe fatigue. Women may feel bloated and temporarily gain weight. Breasts may feel full and be painful. Women may have a sense of heaviness or pressure in the lower abdomen.

Other disorders may worsen while PMS symptoms are occurring. They include the following:

Mood disorders can cause similar symptoms, and those symptoms may worsen just before a menstrual period, even in women who do not have PMS or premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

In premenstrual dysphoric disorder Premenstrual dysphoric disorder Depression is a feeling of sadness and/or a decreased interest or pleasure in activities that becomes a disorder when it is intense enough to interfere with functioning. It may follow a recent... read more , premenstrual symptoms are so severe that they interfere with work, social activities, or relationships. Interest in daily activities is greatly reduced, and some women may even become suicidal. Symptoms occur regularly before menstrual periods start and end when or shortly after periods start. Women may lose interest in their usual activities and have suicidal thoughts.

Symptoms That Can Occur in Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)


  • Awareness of heartbeats (palpitations)

  • Backache

  • Bloating

  • Breast fullness and pain

  • Changes in appetite and cravings for certain foods

  • Constipation

  • Cramps, heaviness, or pressure in the lower abdomen

  • Dizziness, including vertigo

  • Easy bruising

  • Fainting

  • Fatigue

  • Headaches

  • Hot flashes

  • Insomnia, including difficulty falling or staying asleep at night

  • Joint and muscle pain

  • Lack of energy

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Pins-and-needles sensations in the hands and feet

  • Skin problems, such as acne and localized scratch dermatitis

  • Swelling of hands and feet

  • Weight gain


  • Agitation

  • Anxiety

  • Confusion

  • Crying spells

  • Depression

  • Difficulty concentrating

  • Emotional hypersensitivity

  • Forgetfulness or memory loss

  • Irritability

  • Mood swings or worsening of mood disorders that are already present

  • Nervousness

  • Short temper

  • Social withdrawal

Diagnosis of Premenstrual Syndrome

  • For PMS, a doctor's evaluation

  • Sometimes standardized tests for depression

  • For premenstrual dysphoric disorder, specific guidelines

The diagnosis of PMS is based on symptoms. To identify PMS, doctors ask a woman to keep a daily record of her symptoms. This record helps the woman be aware of changes in her body and moods and helps doctors identify any regular symptoms and determine what treatment is best.

If women have symptoms of depression Diagnosis Depression is a feeling of sadness and/or a decreased interest or pleasure in activities that becomes a disorder when it is intense enough to interfere with functioning. It may follow a recent... read more , they may be given standardized tests for depression or be referred to a mental health care practitioner. However, doctors can usually distinguish PMS or premenstrual dysphoric disorder from mood disorders based on factors such as the timing of symptoms. If the symptoms disappear soon after the menstrual period begins, they are probably caused by PMS or premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder cannot be diagnosed until a woman has recorded her symptoms for at least two menstrual cycles. Doctors base the diagnosis on specific guidelines. The guidelines state that a woman must have a total of at least five of the symptoms that often occur in women with PMS (with at least one from each of the two lists below).

The symptoms must include at least one of the following:

  • Having changeable moods (for example, suddenly feeling sad and tearful)

  • Being very irritable or angry or having more conflicts with other people

  • Feeling very depressed or hopeless or being very critical of self

  • Feeling anxious, tense, or on edge

The symptoms must also include at least one of the following:

  • A decreased interest in usual activities

  • Difficulty concentrating

  • Low energy or fatigue

  • Noticeable changes in appetite, overeating, or specific food cravings

  • Problems sleeping (having problems going to or staying asleep or sleeping too much)

  • Feelings of being overwhelmed or out of control

  • Physical symptoms that often occur in women with PMS (such as tender breasts)

Also, the symptoms must have occurred for most of the previous 12 months, and they must be severe enough to interfere with daily activities and function.

Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome

  • Good sleep, exercise, and a healthy diet

  • Sometimes medications, including hormones and/or antidepressants

PMS may be difficult to treat. No single treatment is effective for all women, and few woman have complete relief with any single type of treatment.

General measures

Women can try the following to help relieve PMS symptoms:

  • Getting enough rest and sleep (at least 7 hours each night)

  • Exercising regularly, which may help lessen bloating as well as irritability, anxiety, and insomnia (yoga and Tai Chi help some women)

  • Using stress reduction techniques (meditation or relaxation exercises)

  • Avoiding stressful activities

  • Consuming more protein and less sugar and caffeine (including that in chocolate)

  • Consuming more fruits, vegetables, milk, complex carbohydrates (for example, in breads, pastas, beans, and root vegetables), high-fiber foods, low-fat meats, and foods high in calcium and vitamin D

  • Consuming less salt, which often reduces fluid retention and relieves bloating

  • Avoiding certain foods and drinks (such as cola, coffee, hot dogs, potato chips, and canned foods)

Certain dietary supplements may lessen PMS symptoms to some degree. These supplements include chasteberry extract from the agnus castus fruit, vitamin B6, and vitamin E. Women should talk to their doctor before they take any supplements, especially vitamin B6, which may be harmful if taken in high doses. Nerve damage is possible with as little as 100 milligrams of vitamin B6 a day. Calcium supplements may improve mood and lessen physical symptoms.

Did You Know...

  • Taking birth control pills sometimes relieves PMS symptoms but sometimes makes them worse, particularly in the first 6 weeks after starting.


Taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Pain relievers (analgesics) are the main drugs used to treat pain. Doctors choose a pain reliever based on the type and duration of pain and on the drug's likely benefits and risks. Most pain... read more (NSAIDs) may help relieve headaches, pain due to abdominal cramps, and joint pain. To decrease the intensity of headaches or cramps, women can start taking NSAIDs a few days before their period starts.

Women who have more severe PMS symptoms or premenstrual dysphoric disorder may benefit from taking antidepressants Medications for Treatment of Depression Several types of medications can be used to treat depression: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors, serotonin modulators, and serotonin-norepinephrine... read more called selective serotonin release inhibitors (SSRIs) such as citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, or sertraline. These medications are the first choice for relief of anxiety, irritability, and other psychologic symptoms, particularly if stress cannot be avoided. They are used to prevent symptoms, and to be effective, they should be taken daily before symptoms begin or, for some women with PMS, taken daily the 2 weeks before menstrual periods begin. Taking these medications after symptoms begin usually does not relieve symptoms. These medications are most effective in reducing irritability, depression, breast tenderness, and changes in appetite.

Hormone therapy may help. Options include the following:

  • Birth control pills

  • Progesterone vaginal suppositories

  • Progesterone pills

  • Injection of a long-acting progestin (a synthetic form of the female hormone progesterone) every 2 or 3 months

Oral contraceptives that result in shorter menstrual periods or that increase the interval between periods to as much as 3 months may help some women.

Brexanolone, given intravenously, is now available for treatment of postpartum depression specifically, and may be particularly helpful if oral medications are ineffective.

If fluid retention is a problem, doctors may prescribe the diuretic spironolactone (which helps the kidneys eliminate salt and water from the body).

Doctors may ask a woman to continue keeping a record of her symptoms so that they can judge the effectiveness of PMS treatment.

For women who have premenstrual dysphoric disorder that persists despite other treatments, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (such as leuprolide or goserelin), given by injection, may help relieve symptoms. GnRH agonists are a synthetic form of a hormone produced by the body. GnRH agonists cause the ovaries to produce less estrogen and progesterone. Thus, they help control the rapid fluctuations in hormone levels that occur before menstrual periods and that contribute to symptoms. Women are usually also given estrogen plus a progestin, taken in a low dose by mouth or a patch Skin patches Contraceptive hormones can be Taken by mouth (oral contraceptives) Inserted into the vagina (vaginal rings) Applied to the skin (patch) Implanted under the skin read more Skin patches .


As a last resort for women who have severe symptoms that cannot be controlled with other treatments, doctors may offer surgery. Removing the ovaries eliminates menstrual cycles and thus eliminates PMS symptoms. However, removing the ovaries has the same effects as menopause Menopause Menopause is the permanent end of menstrual periods, ovulation, and fertility. For up to several years before and just after menopause, estrogen levels fluctuate widely, periods become irregular... read more Menopause , including increasing the risk of osteoporosis and other problems associated with menopause Symptoms after menopause Menopause is the permanent end of menstrual periods, ovulation, and fertility. For up to several years before and just after menopause, estrogen levels fluctuate widely, periods become irregular... read more Symptoms after menopause . To lessen or prevent some of these effects, doctors typically suggest that these women take hormone therapy that contains estrogen and a progestin or progesterone until they reach the average age for menopause (about age 51).

Drugs Mentioned In This Article

Generic Name Select Brand Names
Cafcit, NoDoz, Stay Awake, Vivarin
Calcidol, Calciferol, D3 2000, D3 5000, D3 Vitamin, DECARA, Deltalin, Dialyvite Vitamin D, Dialyvite Vitamin D3, Drisdol, D-Vita, Enfamil D-Vi-Sol, Ergo D, Fiber with Vitamin D3 Gummies Gluten-Free, Happy Sunshine Vitamin D3, MAXIMUM D3, PureMark Naturals Vitamin D, Replesta, Replesta Children's, Super Happy SUNSHINE Vitamin D3, Thera-D 2000, Thera-D 4000, Thera-D Rapid Repletion, THERA-D SPORT, UpSpring Baby Vitamin D, UpSpring Baby Vitamin D3, YumVs, YumVs Kids ZERO, YumVs ZERO
Alph-E-Mixed , AQUA-E, Aquasol E , Aquavite-E
Prozac, Prozac Weekly, Sarafem, Selfemra
Brisdelle, Paxil, Paxil CR, Pexeva
Zoloft, Zoloft Concentrate, Zoloft Solution
Crinone, Endometrin , First - Progesterone MC 10, First - Progesterone MC 5, Prochieve, PROMETRIUM
Aldactone, CAROSPIR
CAMCEVI, Eligard, Fensolvi, Lupron, Lupron Depot, Lupron Depot-Ped, Viadur
Zoladex, Zoladex 3-Month
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