In cervical stenosis, the passageway through the cervix (from the vagina to the main body of the uterus) is narrow or completely closed.
Cervical stenosis usually results from a disorder or another condition, such as the following:
Cancer of the cervix Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer develops in the cervix (the lower part of the uterus). Cervical cancer usually results from infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV), transmitted during sexual intercourse... read more or cancer of the lining of the uterus (endometrial cancer Cancer of the Uterus Cancer of the uterus develops in the lining of the uterus (endometrium) and is thus also called endometrial cancer. Endometrial cancer usually affects women after menopause. It sometimes causes... read more )
Surgery that involves the cervix—for example, done to treat precancerous changes of the cervix (dysplasia)
Procedures that destroy or remove the lining of the uterus (endometrial ablation) in women who have persistent vaginal bleeding
Radiation therapy to treat cervical cancer or endometrial cancer
In women who are still menstruating, menstrual blood mixed with cells from the uterus may flow backward into the pelvis, possibly causing endometriosis Endometriosis In endometriosis, patches of endometrial tissue—normally occurring only in the lining of the uterus (endometrium)—appear outside the uterus. Why endometrial tissue appears outside the uterus... read more .
Rarely, cervical stenosis results in an accumulation of blood in the uterus (hematometra).
Also rarely, pus accumulates in the uterus, particularly if the cause of stenosis is cervical or endometrial cancer. Accumulation of pus in the uterus is called pyometra.
Cervical stenosis often causes no symptoms.
Before menopause, cervical stenosis may cause menstrual abnormalities, such as no periods (amenorrhea Absence of Menstrual Periods Having no menstrual periods is called amenorrhea. Amenorrhea is normal in the following circumstances: Before puberty During pregnancy While breastfeeding read more ), painful periods (dysmenorrhea Menstrual Cramps Menstrual cramps are pains in the lowest part of the torso (pelvis), a few days before, during, or after a menstrual period. The pain tends to be most intense about 24 hours after periods begin... read more ), and abnormal bleeding Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) Abnormal uterine bleeding is bleeding from the vagina that occurs frequently or irregularly or lasts longer or is heavier than normal menstrual periods. The most common type of abnormal bleeding... read more . Sometimes cervical stenosis causes infertility because sperm cannot pass through the cervix to fertilize the egg.
A hematometra or pyometra can cause pain or cause the uterus to bulge. Sometimes women feel a lump in the pelvic area.
Doctors may suspect the diagnosis based on symptoms and circumstances, such as the following:
When periods stop or become painful after surgery on the cervix
When doctors cannot insert an instrument into the cervix for another test—for example, to obtain a sample of tissue from the cervix for a Papanicolaou (Pap) or human papilloma virus (HPV) test (called cervical cytology testing) or a sample from the lining of the uterus for an endometrial biopsy
Doctors confirm the diagnosis by trying to pass a probe through the cervix into the uterus.
If cervical stenosis causes symptoms, tests are done to rule out cancer. If premenopausal women have a hematometra or pyometra, these tests may include cervical cytology testing Screening for Cervical Cancer Sometimes doctors recommend screening tests, which are tests that are done to look for disorders in people who have no symptoms. If women have symptoms related to the reproductive system (gynecologic... read more (such as a Pap or HPV test) and endometrial biopsy Uterus Sometimes doctors recommend screening tests, which are tests that are done to look for disorders in people who have no symptoms. If women have symptoms related to the reproductive system (gynecologic... read more . Before these tests can be done, doctors do a procedure—called dilation and curettage Dilation and Curettage Sometimes doctors recommend screening tests, which are tests that are done to look for disorders in people who have no symptoms. If women have symptoms related to the reproductive system (gynecologic... read more (D & C) widen or open the cervix. This procedure enables doctors to take samples from the cervix and from the lining of the uterus for testing.
No further tests are needed if all of the following apply:
Cervical stenosis is treated only if women have symptoms, a hematometra, or a pyometra. Then, the cervix may be widened (dilated) by inserting small, lubricated metal rods (dilators) through its opening, then inserting progressively larger dilators. To try to keep the cervix open, doctors may place a tube (cervical stent) in the cervix for 4 to 6 weeks.