Merck Manual

Please confirm that you are a health care professional

honeypot link

Overview of Minerals

By

Larry E. Johnson

, MD, PhD, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Last full review/revision Dec 2021| Content last modified Dec 2021
Click here for Patient Education
Topic Resources

Six macrominerals are required by people in gram amounts.

Daily requirements range from 0.3 to 2.0 g. Bone, muscle, heart, and brain function depend on these macrominerals.

Nine trace minerals Trace Minerals Trace Minerals (microminerals) are required by people in minute amounts:

  • Chromium

  • Copper

  • Fluorine

  • Iodine

  • Iron

  • Manganese

  • Molybdenum

  • Selenium

  • Zinc

Dietary guidelines for trace minerals have been determined (see table Guidelines for Daily Intake of Trace Minerals Guidelines for Daily Intake of Trace Minerals Guidelines for Daily Intake of Trace Minerals ). All trace minerals are toxic at high levels; some minerals (arsenic, nickel, and chromium) may be carcinogens. It is not clear whether chromium should be considered an essential (required) trace element ( 1 General reference Six macrominerals are required by people in gram amounts. Four cations: Sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium Two accompanying anions: Chloride and phosphorus Daily requirements range from... read more ).

Table
Table

General reference

  • 1. Vincent JB: New evidence against chromium as an essential trace element. J Nutr 147(12):2212–2219, 2017. doi:10.3945/jn.117.255901

More Information

The following English-language resource may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of this resource.

Click here for Patient Education
NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: Click here for the Consumer Version
quiz link

Test your knowledge

Take a Quiz! 
iOS ANDROID
iOS ANDROID
iOS ANDROID
TOP