Six macrominerals are required by people in gram amounts.
Daily requirements range from 0.3 to 2.0 g. Bone, muscle, heart, and brain function depend on these macrominerals.
(See also Water and Sodium Balance Water and Sodium Balance Body fluid volume and electrolyte concentration are normally maintained within very narrow limits despite wide variations in dietary intake, metabolic activity, and environmental stresses. Homeostasis... read more .)
Dietary guidelines for trace minerals have been determined (see table Guidelines for Daily Intake of Trace Minerals Guidelines for Daily Intake of Trace Minerals ). All trace minerals are toxic at high levels; some minerals (chromium) may be carcinogens. It is not clear whether chromium should be considered an essential (required) trace element (1 Reference Six macrominerals are required by people in gram amounts. Four cations: Sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium Two accompanying anions: Chloride and phosphorus Daily requirements range from... read more ).
Trace mineral deficiencies (except for iodine, iron, and zinc) do not often develop spontaneously in adults on ordinary diets; infants are more vulnerable because their growth is rapid and intake varies.
Trace mineral imbalances can result from hereditary disorders (eg, hemochromatosis Hereditary Hemochromatosis Hereditary hemochromatosis is a genetic disorder characterized by excessive iron (Fe) accumulation that results in tissue damage. Manifestations can include systemic symptoms, liver disorders... read more , Wilson disease Wilson Disease Wilson disease results in accumulation of copper in the liver and other organs. Hepatic or neurologic symptoms develop. Diagnosis is based on a low serum ceruloplasmin level, high urinary excretion... read more ), kidney dialysis Overview of Renal Replacement Therapy Renal replacement therapy (RRT) replaces nonendocrine kidney function in patients with renal failure and is occasionally used for some forms of poisoning. Techniques include continuous hemofiltration... read more , parenteral nutrition, restrictive diets prescribed for people with inborn errors of metabolism Introduction to Inherited Disorders of Metabolism Most inherited disorders of metabolism (also called inborn errors of metabolism) are caused by mutations in genes that code for enzymes; enzyme deficiency or inactivity leads to Accumulation... read more , or various popular diet plans.
The following English-language resource may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of this resource.
U.S. Department of Agriculture: General resources on vitamins and minerals provided by the National Agricultural Library.