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Color Changes and Spots in the Mouth


Bernard J. Hennessy

, DDS, Texas A&M University, College of Dentistry

Last full review/revision Jun 2020| Content last modified Jun 2020
Click here for the Professional Version

Color changes in the mouth may be caused by

  • Bodywide (systemic) disease

  • Mouth conditions

Bodywide diseases that can cause color changes in the mouth include the following:

Mouth conditions that cause color change may or may not represent a problem. For example, white areas can appear anywhere in the mouth and often are simply food debris that can be wiped away. White areas may also be caused by cheek biting or by rubbing the cheeks or tongue on a sharp part of a tooth or dental filling. However, because more persistent white areas can be an early sign of mouth cancer Mouth and Throat Cancer Mouth and throat cancers are cancers that originate on the lips, the roof, sides, or floor of the mouth, tongue, tonsils, or back of the throat. Mouth and throat cancers may look like open sores... read more Mouth and Throat Cancer , they should always be evaluated by a dentist or doctor. White areas can indicate many other conditions besides cancer, such as a yeast infection (candidiasis Candidiasis Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by several species of the yeast Candida, especially Candida albicans. The most common type of candidiasis is a superficial infection of the mouth, vagina... read more Candidiasis ), thick white folds (a hereditary condition called white sponge nevus), a white line running along the inside of the cheek opposite the teeth (linea alba), and a grayish white area of the mucosa (leukoedema).

Examples of color changes in the mouth include the following:

  • The mouth may have dark blue or black areas due to silver amalgam from a dental filling, graphite from falling with a pencil in the mouth, or a mole.

  • Heavy cigarette smoking can lead to dark brown or black discoloration (usually of the gums) called smoker’s melanosis.

  • Brown areas in the mouth can be hereditary. For example, darkly pigmented areas are particularly common among dark-skinned and Mediterranean people.

  • Food pigments, aging, and smoking may cause teeth to darken or yellow.

  • Minocycline, an antibiotic, discolors bone, which may show through near the teeth as gray or brown. Children's teeth darken noticeably and permanently after even short-term use of tetracyclines (a class of antibiotic) by the mother during the second half of pregnancy or by the child during tooth development (specifically calcification of the crowns, which lasts until age 9).

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