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Blunt Injury to the Heart

(Cardiac Contusion; Myocardial Contusion)


Thomas G. Weiser

, MD, MPH, Stanford University School of Medicine

Reviewed/Revised Apr 2022 | Modified Sep 2022

Blunt injury to the heart is a blow to the chest that bruises the heart muscle, tears (ruptures) the heart's walls, or damages a heart valve.

  • People may feel that their heart is pounding or racing, feel short of breath, or have dangerously low blood pressure.

  • Electrocardiography (ECG) and ultrasonography of the heart (echocardiography) are done.

  • People who have an abnormal heart rhythm (heartbeats that are too fast, too slow, or irregular) are admitted to the hospital so that the rhythm can be monitored continuously.

  • People who have damage to a heart valve or a tear in the heart's wall usually require surgery.

A blunt injury is a forceful blow that does not penetrate the skin. Blunt injuries to the heart can be caused by a motor vehicle crash, a fall from a height, or less often a direct blow.

If the heart is severely injured, people often die before they can be treated. However, many injuries worsen over hours or even longer.

A tear in the wall of the heart (ventricular rupture) often causes fatal bleeding before people can be taken to a hospital. However, bleeding from a small tear is sometimes contained by the membrane around the heart (pericardium) long enough for people to receive treatment. Such blood collected around the heart can interfere with the heart's ability to fill with blood (see Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is pressure on the heart by blood or fluid that accumulates in the two-layered sac around the heart (pericardium). This disorder interferes with the heart's ability to pump... read more ).

Rarely, a tear in the membrane that separates two chambers of the heart (septal rupture) may occur. Such a tear may not cause symptoms until some time after a blunt injury. The person may then develop heart failure.

Commotio cordis

Commotio cordis is the sudden stopping of the heart (cardiac arrest Cardiac Arrest and CPR Cardiac arrest is when the heart stops pumping blood and oxygen to the brain and other organs and tissues. Sometimes a person can be revived after cardiac arrest, particularly if treatment is... read more Cardiac Arrest and CPR ) caused by a blow to the front of the chest. Typically, this blow involves a hard object that is moving fast (such as a baseball or a hockey puck). Thus, commotio cordis usually occurs during sports activities in young people.

The exact reason for cardiac arrest is unclear, but commotio cordis does not result from an underlying heart disorder or from physical damage to the heart muscle. Some experts think that cardiac arrest occurs because the blow occurs at a critical moment during the cycle that produces each heartbeat. The blow then disrupts the electrical signals that keep the heart pumping continuously and regularly.

Symptoms of Blunt Cardiac Injury

A blunt injury to the heart can cause various symptoms. Most people have pain and often bruising or other injuries around the breastbone or ribs. Some people have symptoms of heart failure, such as shortness of breath. People may go into shock Open Pneumothorax An open pneumothorax occurs when air accumulates between the chest wall and the lung as the result of an open chest wound or other physical defect. The larger the opening, the greater the degree... read more . Their skin may be sweaty, cool, and bluish, and blood pressure may be dangerously low. Heart rhythms may be abnormal. People may feel that their heart is pounding, racing, or beating abnormally (palpitations).

Diagnosis of Blunt Cardiac Injury

  • Electrocardiography (ECG) and echocardiography

If people might have a blunt heart injury, an ECG Electrocardiography Electrocardiography (ECG) is a quick, simple, painless medical test that measures the heart’s electrical impulses. During an ECG, the heart's electrical impulses are measured, amplified, and... read more Electrocardiography is usually done to check for abnormal heart rhythms. Sometimes doctors also check the blood for substances (serum markers) released by the damaged heart.

Echocardiography Echocardiography and Other Ultrasound Procedures Ultrasonography is a type of medical imaging that uses high-frequency (ultrasound) waves to produce a moving image of internal organs and other tissues. Echocardiography is ultrasonography of... read more Echocardiography and Other Ultrasound Procedures is done, sometimes in the emergency department. Echocardiography may show abnormalities in the way the heart's walls move. It may also show blood or fluid around the heart, or rupture of a heart wall, or damage to a heart valve.

Treatment of Blunt Cardiac Injury

  • Treatment of related problems, such as abnormal rhythms, heart failure, or cardiac arrest

Several measures may help prevent commotio cordis. They include teaching players ways to protect themselves (certain defensive strategies), using chest protectors and softer baseballs, and having AEDs and trained emergency medical personnel at youth sporting events.

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