Chronic Hepatitis

Reviewed/Revised May 2023
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What is chronic hepatitis?

Chronic hepatitis is inflammation (swelling) of the liver that lasts for 6 months or longer. Chronic hepatitis usually develops from acute hepatitis but you may not know you had acute hepatitis.

  • Usually, chronic hepatitis is caused by the hepatitis B or C virus or certain drugs

  • Most people have no symptoms, but some people may feel a little sick, tired, or not hungry

  • Sometimes, chronic hepatitis can cause serious problems over time, such as cirrhosis

  • Chronic hepatitis can last for years

  • Doctors can treat chronic hepatitis with medicine

What causes chronic hepatitis?

Chronic hepatitis is usually caused by one of the hepatitis viruses, especially hepatitis B and C.

Chronic hepatitis can also be caused by:

Doctors don’t know exactly what causes chronic hepatitis in some people.

What are the symptoms of chronic hepatitis?

About 2 out of 3 people with chronic hepatitis develop it gradually and have no symptoms until they develop cirrhosis (scarring of the liver).

You could have symptoms such as:

  • Feeling a little sick, tired, and less hungry

  • Sometimes, a mild fever and pain in your upper belly area

  • Swelling from fluid building up in your belly area (ascites)

  • Small, spiderlike blood vessels on your skin (spider angioma)

  • Red palms

  • Trouble thinking clearly

  • Bleeding easily

  • Jaundice

  • Itchiness

  • Bad-smelling, greasy looking, light-colored stool (poop)

  • Autoimmune symptoms like joint pain and, for women, no periods

If you have chronic hepatitis B or chronic hepatitis C with cirrhosis, you may develop liver cancer.

How can doctors tell if I have chronic hepatitis?

Doctors will:

  • Do blood tests

  • Take a small sample of your liver to look at under a microscope (biopsy)

How do doctors treat chronic hepatitis?

Your doctor will treat your chronic hepatitis differently depending on the cause:

  • If a certain medicine is the cause, your doctor will have you stop taking the medicine

  • If hepatitis B, C, or E is the cause, your doctor will give you medicine to treat the virus

  • If you’re having an autoimmune reaction, your doctor will give you corticosteroids to decrease the inflammation in the liver

  • If you have severe liver failure, you may need a liver transplant

Doctors will also treat any complications your chronic hepatitis has caused.

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