Merck Manual

Please confirm that you are a health care professional

honeypot link

Contributors

Content last modified Oct 2020

We gratefully acknowledge the expertise of the contributors to our current online version. The subject(s) that they are responsible for are listed after their affiliations.

Denise M. Aaron, MD

Dartmouth Geisel School of Medicine
Benign Skin Tumors, Growths, and Vascular Lesions, Fungal Skin Infections

Jude Abadie, PhD

Texas Tech University Health Science Center
Normal Laboratory Values

Waleed M Abuzeid, BSc, MBBS

University of Washington
How To Do Nose Procedures

Bola Adamolekun, MD

University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Seizure Disorders

Chris G. Adigun, MD

Dermatology & Laser Center of Chapel Hill
Nail Disorders

Gerald L. Andriole, MD

Johns Hopkins Medicine
Benign Prostate Disease

Parswa Ansari, MD

Hofstra Northwell-Lenox Hill Hospital, New York
Acute Abdomen and Surgical Gastroenterology, Anorectal Disorders, Gastrointestinal Bleeding

Noel A. Armenakas, MD

Weill Cornell Medical School|New York Presbyterian Hospital|Hofstra University|Lenox Hill Hospital
Genitourinary Tract Trauma

Guy P. Armstrong, MD

Waitemata District Health Board and Waitemata Cardiology, Auckland|North Shore Hospital, Auckland
Endocarditis, Valvular Disorders

Thomas Arnold, MD

Department of Emergency Medicine, LSU Health Sciences Center Shreveport|Lousiana Poison Center
Bites and Stings

Raul Artal-Mittelmark, MD

Saint Louis University School of Medicine
Approach to the Pregnant Woman and Prenatal Care, High-Risk Pregnancy, Normal Labor and Delivery

Evelyn Attia, MD

Columbia University Medical Center|Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University|New York State Psychiatric Institute|Columbia University Medical Center|New York-Presbyterian Hospital
Eating Disorders

Haya Aziz, MD

McGill University
Arteriosclerosis

Debra Bakerjian, PhD, APRN

University of California Davis
Providing Care to Older Adults

George L. Bakris, MD

University of Chicago School of Medicine
Hypertension

Arcangela Lattari Balest, MD

University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine|Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC
Perinatal Physiology, Perinatal Problems, Respiratory Problems in Neonates

David H. Barad, MD, MS

Center for Human Reproduction|Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Approach to the Gynecologic Patient, Symptoms of Gynecologic Disorders

Peggy P. Barco, OTD, OTR/L, BSW, SCDCM, CDRS, FAOTA

Washington University Medical School
The Older Driver

Robert A. Barish, MD, MBA

University of Illinois at Chicago|University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System|Association of Academic Health Centers (AAHC)|Economic Club of Chicago|Institute of Medicine Chicago
Bites and Stings

Jennifer M. Barker, MD

Children's Hospital Colorado, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology
Polyglandular Deficiency Syndromes

John W. Barnhill, MD

New York-Presbyterian Hospital|Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University|Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons
Anxiety and Stressor-Related Disorders

Michael Bartel, MD, PhD

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple University|Bayhealth Medical Center
Pancreatitis

Joel A. Baum, MD

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Diverticular Disease

Lee B. Beerman, MD

Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
Congenital Cardiovascular Anomalies

Julia Benedetti, MD

Harvard Medical School|Tufts University School of Medicine
Approach to the Dermatologic Patient, Hypersensitivity and Reactive Skin Disorders, Reactions to Sunlight

James R. Berenson, MD

Institute for Myeloma and Bone Cancer Research
Plasma Cell Disorders

John L. Berk, MD

Amyloidosis Center, Boston University Medical Center
Amyloidosis

Barbara J. Berkman, DSW, PhD

Columbia University School of Social Work
Elder Abuse, Social Issues in Older Adults

Cherisse Berry, MD

New York University School of Medicine|New York City Health & Hospitals/Bellevue|Kimmel Pavilion Inpatient Surgery, New York University Langone Health
Approach to the Critically Ill Patient

Rajeev Bhatia, MD

Phoenix Children's Hospital|University of Arizona College of Medicine
Respiratory Disorders in Young Children

Scott W. Biest, MD

Washington University School of Medicine
Uterine Fibroids

Donald W. Black, MD

University of Iowa, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine|Iowa City Veterans Affairs Medical Center
Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance

Karen Blackstone, MD

George Washington University|Washington DC Veterans Administration Medical Center
The Dying Patient

Marcy B. Bolster, MD

Harvard Medical School|Massachusetts General Hospital
Osteoporosis

Herbert L. Bonkovsky, MD

Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Porphyrias

Simeon A. Boyadjiev Boyd, MD

University of California, Davis
Congenital Craniofacial and Musculoskeletal Abnormalities

Christopher J. Brady, MD

Wilmer Eye Institute, Retina Division, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine|Larner College of Medicine, University of Vermont
Symptoms of Ophthalmologic Disorders, How To Do Eye Procedures

Evan M. Braunstein, MD, PhD

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Approach to the Patient With Anemia, Anemias Caused by Deficient Erythropoiesis, Anemias Caused by Hemolysis

Glenn D. Braunstein, MD

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center|The David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles
Thyroid Disorders

George R. Brown, MD

East Tennessee State University|East Tennessee State University
Paraphilic Disorders, Gender Dysphoria, Sexuality

Erika F. Brutsaert, MD

New York Medical College|Westchester Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology
Diabetes Mellitus and Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism

Emily E. Bunce, MD

Wake Forest School of Medicine
Symptoms During Pregnancy

Larry M. Bush, MD, FACP

Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University|University of Miami-Miller School of Medicine
Biology of Infectious Disease, Anaerobic Bacteria, Gram-Negative Bacilli, Gram-Negative Cocci and Coccobacilli, Gram-Positive Cocci, Gram-Positive Bacilli, Spirochetes

Jerrold T. Bushberg, PhD, DABMP

School of Medicine, University of California, Davis|The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
Radiation Exposure and Contamination

Edward R. Cachay, MD, MAS

University of California, San Diego School of Medicine
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Andrew Calabria, MD

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia|Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania
Endocrine Disorders in Children

Danielle Campagne, MD

University of California, San Francisco|University of California, San Francisco - Fresno|American Ambulance
Dislocations, Fractures, Sprains and Other Soft-Tissue Injuries

John D. Carmichael, MD

Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California|USC Pitutiary Center, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California
Pituitary Disorders

David B. Carr, MD

Washington University School of Medicine|Washington University School of Medicine
The Older Driver

Damien Wilson Carter, MD

Tufts University School of Medicine|Maine Medical Center
Burns

Thomas Cascino, MD, MSc

Michigan Medicine, University of Michigan
Cardiovascular Tests and Procedures

Frances E. Casey, MD, MPH

Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center
Family Planning

Michael F. Cellucci, MD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Dehydration and Fluid Therapy in Children

Thenappan Chandrasekar, MD

Thomas Jefferson University
Genitourinary Cancers

Bradley Chappell, DO. MHA

Harbor-UCLA Medical Center|David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
How To Do Other Airway Procedures

Julia F. Charles, MD, PhD

Brigham and Women's Hospital|Harvard Medical School
Paget Disease of Bone

Alan G. Cheng, MD

Stanford University
Oral and Pharyngeal Disorders

Lydia Choi, MD

Karmanos Cancer Center|Wayne State School of Medicine
Breast Disorders

Ji Y. Chong, MD

Weill Cornell Medical College|New York Presbyterian Lower Manhattan Methodist Hospital
Stroke

Paul H. Chung, MD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University
Genitourinary Tests and Procedures, How To Do Genitourinary Procedures

Erin G. Clifton, PhD

University of Michigan
Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault

Elizabeth L. Cobbs, MD

George Washington University|Washington DC Veterans Administration Medical Center
The Dying Patient

William J. Cochran, MD

Geisinger Clinic
Congenital Gastrointestinal Anomalies, Gastrointestinal Disorders in Neonates and Infants

Rafael Antonio Ching Companioni, MD

Diverticular Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

Allison Conn, MD

Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Pavilion for Women
Sexual Dysfunction in Women

Deborah M. Consolini, MD

Thomas Jefferson University Hospital|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Symptoms in Infants and Children, Health Supervision of the Well Child, Care of Newborns and Infants, Caring for Sick Children and Their Families

André V Coombs, MBBS

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
Care of the Surgical Patient

William Coryell, MD

University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine
Mood Disorders

Jimena Cubillos, MD

University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Congenital Renal and Genitourinary Anomalies

Deepan S. Dalal, MD, MPH

Brown University
Bursa, Muscle, and Tendon Disorders

Patricia A. Daly, MD

University of Virginia
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) Syndromes

Daniel F. Danzl, MD

University of Louisville School of Medicine
Cold Injury

Shinjita Das, MD

Harvard Medical School|Massachusetts General Hospital
Pigmentation Disorders, Psoriasis and Scaling Diseases, Sweating Disorders

Michael H. Davidson, MD, FACC, FNLA

University of Chicago Medicine, Pritzker School of Medicine
Lipid Disorders

Keara N. DeCotiis, MD

Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
How To Do Pediatric Urologic Procedures

Peter J. Delves, PhD

University College London, London, UK
Biology of the Immune System, Allergic, Autoimmune, and Other Hypersensitivity Disorders

Matt Demczko, MD

Mitochondrial Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Inherited Disorders of Metabolism

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH

Osmosis|Stanford University
How to Study in Medical School

Rebecca Dezube, MD, MHS

Johns Hopkins University
Approach to the Pulmonary Patient, Symptoms of Pulmonary Disorders, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Pulmonary Procedures, How To Do Pulmonary Procedures

Deepinder K. Dhaliwal, MD, L.Ac

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine|UPMC Eye Center|University of Pittsburgh
Refractive Error

Matthew D. Di Guglielmo, MD, PhD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Stool Incontinence in Children

Joel E. Dimsdale, MD

University of California, San Diego
Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

Elizabeth A. Dinces, MD, MS

Einstein/Montefiore Medical Center
How To Do Ear Procedures

James G. H. Dinulos, MD

Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth|University of Connecticut
Cornification Disorders, Parasitic Skin Infections, Viral Skin Diseases

James D. Douketis, MD

McMaster University|McMaster University
Lymphatic Disorders, Peripheral Venous Disorders

Antonette T. Dulay, MD

Main Line Health System|Axia Women’s Health
Abnormalities of Pregnancy

Jeffrey S. Dungan, MD

Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine
Prenatal Genetic Counseling and Evaluation

Kevin C. Dysart, MD

Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Metabolic, Electrolyte, and Toxic Disorders in Neonates

Josephine Elia, MD

Nemours/A.I. duPont Hospital for Children|Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University
Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents

Ashkan Emadi, MD, PhD

University of Maryland|University of Maryland School of Medicine
Leukemias

B. Mark Evers, MD

Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky|University of Kentucky Department of Surgery
Carcinoid Tumors

Stephen J. Falchek, MD

Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Congenital Neurologic Anomalies

Mark A. Farber, MD, FACS

University of North Carolina|University of North Carolina Aortic Network
Diseases of the Aorta and Its Branches

Abimbola Farinde, PhD, PharmD

Columbia Southern University, Orange Beach, AL
Pharmacodynamics

Carolyn Fein Levy, MD

Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell
Histiocytic Syndromes

James Fernandez, MD, PhD

Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University|Louis Stokes VA Medical Center, Wade Park|Cleveland Clinic
Immunodeficiency Disorders

Paula Ferrada, MD

VCU Health System
How To Do Central Vascular Procedures

Teodoro Ernesto Figueroa, MD

Nemours/A.I. duPont Nemours Hospital for Children|Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University
Urinary Incontinence in Children

Nowell M. Fine, MD, SM

Libin Cardiovascular Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary
Heart Failure

David N. Finegold, MD

University of Pittsburgh|University of Pittsburgh
General Principles of Medical Genetics

Michael B. First, MD

Columbia University|New York State Psychiatric Institute
Approach to the Patient With Mental Symptoms

Joseph D Forrester, MD, MSc

Stanford University|Stanford Healthcare
Sepsis and Septic Shock

Marvin P. Fried, MD

Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital of Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Approach to the Patient With Nasal and Pharyngeal Symptoms, Nose and Paranasal Sinus Disorders

Lara A. Friel, MD, PhD

University of Texas Health Medical School at Houston, McGovern Medical School
Pregnancy Complicated by Disease

Enrica Fung, MD, MPH

Loma Linda University School of Medicine|VA Loma Linda Healthcare System
Cystic Kidney Disease

Dmitry Gabrilovich, MD, PhD

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
Tumor Immunology

Shiv Gaglani, MBA

Osmosis
How to Study in Medical School

Robert Peter Gale, MD, PhD, DSC(hc)

Imperial College London|Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College
Overview of Cancer, Principles of Cancer Therapy

Pierluigi Gambetti, MD

Case Western Reserve University
Prion Diseases

James Garrity, MD

Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science
Eyelid and Lacrimal Disorders, Optic Nerve Disorders, Orbital Diseases

Mark T. Gladwin, MD

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine|Pittsburgh Heart, Lung, and Blood Vascular Medicine Institute
Pulmonary Hypertension

Stephen Gluckman, MD

Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Oluwatosin Goje, MD, MSCR

Cleveland Clinic, Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University|Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Women's Health Institute, Cleveland Clinic
Vaginitis, Cervicitis, and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Steven A. Goldman, MD, PhD

Sana Biotechnology|University of Copenhagen Faculty of Medicine|University of Rochester Medical Center
Intracranial and Spinal Tumors

Hector A. Gonzalez-Usigli, MD

HE UMAE Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente|Movement Disorders Clinic
Movement and Cerebellar Disorders

Stuart B. Goodman, MD, PhD

Stanford University
Osteonecrosis

Jonathan Gotfried, MD

Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University|Main Line Health, Bryn Mawr, PA
Symptoms of Gastrointestinal Disorders, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Gastrointestinal Procedures, Gastroenteritis

Evan G. Graber, DO

Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children|Sydney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University
Growth and Development

Ayman Grada, MD, MS

Department of Dermatology, Boston University School of Medicine
Pressure Injury

Michael I. Greenberg, MD

Drexel University College of Medicine
Occupational and Environmental Medicine

John E. Greenlee, MD

University of Utah Health
Brain Infections, How To Do Lumbar Puncture, Meningitis

Renee Gresh, DO

Nemours A.I. duPont Hospital for Children
Pediatric Cancers

Ashley B. Grossman, MD

University of Oxford; Fellow, Green-Templeton College|St Bartholomew’s Hospital and the London School of Medicine
Adrenal Disorders

Ravindu Gunatilake, MD

Valley Perinatal Services|Creighton University School of Medicine-Phoenix
Drugs in Pregnancy

Jessica I. Gupta, MD

University of Michigan Health
Approach to the Cardiac Patient

Puneet Gupta, MD

Los Angeles County Fire Department|Harbor-UCLA
How To Do Other Orthopedic Procedures

Dorothy Habrat, DO

University of New Mexico School of Medicine|University of New Mexico EMS Consortium, University of New Mexico EMS Fellowship
How To Do Basic Airway Procedures, How To Do Other Emergency Medicine Procedures

James Peter Adam Hamilton, MD

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine|Johns Hopkins Medicine
Iron Overload

Margaret R. Hammerschlag, MD

State University of New York Downstate Medical Center
Chlamydia and Mycoplasmas

Peter J. Heath, DDS, MD

American Board of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
How To Do Dental Procedures

L. Aimee Hechanova, MD

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso
Renal Replacement Therapy, Renal Transport Abnormalities

Robert P. Heine, MD

Wake Forest School of Medicine|Wake Forest Baptist Health
Symptoms During Pregnancy

Bernard J. Hennessy, DDS

Texas A&M University, College of Dentistry
Symptoms of Dental and Oral Disorders, Common Dental Disorders, Lip and Tongue Disorders

Martin Hertl, MD, PhD

Rush University Medical Center
Transplantation

Irvin H. Hirsch, MD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University
Male Reproductive Endocrinology and Related Disorders, Male Sexual Dysfunction

Kelly R. Hodges, MD

Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Pavilion for Women
Sexual Dysfunction in Women

Brian D. Hoit, MD

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine|University Hospitals Health System|University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center
Myocarditis and Pericarditis

Byron J. Hoogwerf, MD

Cleveland Clinic|Central Michigan University College of Medicine
Clinical Trials

Juebin Huang, MD, PhD

Department of Neurology, University of Mississippi Medical Center
Delirium and Dementia, Function and Dysfunction of the Cerebral Lobes

Michael C. Iannuzzi, MD, MBA

Henry Ford Hospital|GeneToBe LLC
Sarcoidosis

Talha H. Imam, MD

University of Riverside School of Medicine|Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

Manuel Izquierdo, DO

Wake Forest Baptist Health
Asthma and Related Disorders

Whitney Jackson, MD

University of Colorado School of Medicine|University of Colorado School of Medicine
Alcohol-Related Liver Disease, Vascular Disorders of the Liver

Harry S. Jacob, MD, DHC

University of Minnesota Medical School|HemOnc Today
Spleen Disorders

Arif Jivan, MD, PhD

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Coronary Artery Disease

Larry E. Johnson, MD, PhD

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences|University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Mineral Deficiency and Toxicity, Vitamin Deficiency, Dependency, and Toxicity

Brian D. Johnston, Exercise Specialist

International Association of Resistance Training|Prescribed Exercise Clinics
Exercise

Bridgette L. Jones, MD, MS

University of Missouri, Kansas City, School of Medicine, Children's Mercy, Kansas City, MO|University of Kansas School of Medicine
Principles of Drug Treatment in Children

Jaime Jordan, MD

UCLA School of Medicine|Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center
Approach to the Trauma Patient

David M. Joyce, MD

Moffitt Cancer Center
Tumors of Bones and Joints

Michael J. Joyce, MD

Cleveland Clinic Lerner School of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University
Tumors of Bones and Joints

James O. Judge, MD

University of Connecticut School of Medicine
Gait Disorders in Older Adults

Bruce A. Kaiser, MD

Nemours/Alfred I. DuPont Hospital for Children
Hypertension in Children

Daniel B. Kaplan, PhD, LICSW

Adelphi University School of Social Work
Elder Abuse, Social Issues in Older Adults

Kenneth M. Kaye, MD

Harvard Medical School|Brigham and Women's Hospital
Herpesviruses

David M. Kaylie, MS, MD

Duke University Medical Center
Approach to the Patient With Ear Problems

Robert L. Keith, MD

Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine|Rocky Mountain Regional VA Medical Center, VA Eastern Colorado HealthCare System
Tumors of the Lungs

Sarah F. Keller, MD, MA

Cleveland Clinic, Department of Rheumatic and Immunologic Diseases
Crystal-Induced Arthritides

Jonette E. Keri, MD, PhD

University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine|Miami VA Hospital
Principles of Topical Dermatologic Therapy, Acne and Related Disorders

Bradley W. Kesser, MD

University of Virginia School of Medicine
External Ear Disorders

Mashal Khan, MD

Weill Cornell Medicine|NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital
Substance-Related Disorders

Leila M. Khazaeni, MD

Loma Linda University School of Medicine
Approach to the Ophthalmologic Patient, Cataract, Eye Defects and Conditions in Children

Charlie C. Kilpatrick, MD, MEd

Baylor College of Medicine|Baylor College of Medicine
Miscellaneous Gynecologic Disorders, Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)

Gary D. Klasser, DMD

Louisiana State University School of Dentistry
Temporomandibular Disorders

Mehmet Kocak, MD

Rush University Medical Center|Rush Medical College
Principles of Radiologic Imaging

Apostolos Kontzias, MD

Stony Brook University School of Medicine
Joint Disorders, Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes

Laura D Kramer, PhD

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health|School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany
Viruses

Sonal Kumar, MD, MPH

Weill Cornell Medical College
Hepatitis

David J. Kuter, MD, DPhil

Harvard Medical School|Massachusetts General Hospital
Bleeding Due to Abnormal Blood Vessels, Thrombocytopenia and Platelet Dysfunction

Kara C. LaMattina, MD

Boston University School of Medicine|Boston Medical Center
Uveitis and Related Disorders

Lewis Landsberg, MD

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) Syndromes

Abigail R. Lara, MD

University of Colorado
Environmental Pulmonary Diseases

Christopher J. LaRosa, MD

Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania|Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
Congenital Renal Transport Abnormalities

Jennie York Law, MD

University of Maryland, School of Medicine|University of Maryland School of Medicine
Leukemias

Jennifer Le, PharmD, MAS, BCPS-ID, FIDSA, FCCP, FCSHP

Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego
Pharmacokinetics

Joyce Lee, MD, MAS

University of Colorado School of Medicine
Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage and Pulmonary-Renal Syndrome, Interstitial Lung Diseases

Tae Hoon Lee, MD

James J. Peters VA Medical Center|Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Fibrosis and Cirrhosis

Magda Lenartowicz, MD

Trinity Hospice, Los Angeles
Prevention of Disease and Disability in Older Adults

John P. Leonard, MD

Weill Cornell Medicine
Lymphomas

Michael C. Levin, MD

College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan
Approach to the Neurologic Patient, Symptoms of Neurologic Disorders, Neurologic Tests and Procedures, Demyelinating Disorders

Wendy S. Levinbook, MD

Hartford Dermatology Associates
Hair Disorders

Andrea R. Levine, MD

University of Maryland School of Medicine
Pulmonary Hypertension, Pulmonary Rehabilitation

Sharon Levy, MD, MPH

Harvard Medical School|Boston Children's Hospital
Problems in Adolescents

James L. Lewis III, MD

Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincent’s Ascension Health, Birmingham|Nephrology Associates, PC, Birmingham, AL
Acid-Base Regulation and Disorders, Electrolyte Disorders, Fluid Metabolism, Parathyroid Disorders

Miranda Lewis, MD

University of Washington
How To Splint or Immobilize an Upper Limb

Paul L. Liebert, MD

Tomah Memorial Hospital, Tomah, WI
Sports Injury

Jane Liesveld, MD

James P. Wilmot Cancer Institute, University of Rochester Medical Center
Eosinophilic Disorders, Myeloproliferative Disorders

Richard W. Light, MD

Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Mediastinal and Pleural Disorders

Christina C. Lindenmeyer, MD

Cleveland Clinic|Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University
Testing for Hepatic and Biliary Disorders, Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders

Alexa Lindley, MD, MPH

University of Washington School of Medicine|University of Washington
Medical Aspects of Travel

Sunny A. Linnebur, PharmD, BCPS, BCGP

Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado
Drug Therapy in Older Adults

Jeffrey M. Lipton, MD, PhD

Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell|The Center for Autoimmune and Musculoskeletal Disease, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research|Steven and Alexandra Cohen Children’s Medical Center of New York
Histiocytic Syndromes

James H. Liu, MD

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine|University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center
Endometriosis

Yiju Teresa Liu, MD

Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
How To Do Peripheral Vascular Procedures

Phillip Low, MD

College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic|Mayo Clinic
Autonomic Nervous System

Andrew M. Luks, MD

University of Washington|University of Washington
Altitude Illness

Lawrence R. Lustig, MD

Columbia University Medical Center and New York Presbyterian Hospital
Hearing Loss, Inner Ear Disorders

Kristle Lee Lynch, MD

Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania|University of Pennsylvania
Esophageal and Swallowing Disorders

Shalini S. Lynch, PharmD

University of California San Francisco School of Pharmacy
Concepts in Pharmacotherapy, Factors Affecting Response to Drugs

Joanne Lynn, MD, MA, MS

Altarum Institute
The Dying Patient

Geetha Maddukuri, MD

Saint Louis University|VA St Louis Health Care System
Approach to the Genitourinary Patient, Symptoms of Genitourinary Disorders

James M. Madsen, MD, MPH

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD)
Mass-Casualty Weapons

Kenneth Maiese, MD

Rutgers University|National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Coma and Impaired Consciousness, Neurotransmission

Zubair Malik, MD

Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University|Temple University Hospital
Bezoars and Foreign Bodies, How To Do Gastrointestinal Procedures

Anna Malkina, MD

University of California, San Francisco
Acute Kidney Injury, Chronic Kidney Disease

Brian F. Mandell, MD, PhD

Cleveland Clinic
Clinical Decision Making

Gordon Mao, MD

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Spinal Trauma, Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

Chelsea Marie, PhD

University of Virginia
Approach to Parasitic Infections, Cestodes (Tapeworms), Intestinal Protozoa and Microsporidia, Trematodes (Flukes), Nematodes (Roundworms)

Daphne E. Smith Marsh, PharmD, BC-ADM, CDCES

University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy|University of Malta
Adverse Drug Reactions

Peter Martin, MD

Weill Cornell Medicine
Lymphomas

James Y. McCue, MD

University of California San Francisco - Fresno
How To Do Casting Procedures, How To Splint or Immobilize a Lower Limb

Robert S. McKelvie, MD, PhD

Western University|McMaster University
Sports and the Heart

Jessica E. McLaughlin, MD

Medical University of South Carolina
Female Reproductive Endocrinology

Jay Mehta, MD

Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania|The Children's Hospital of Pediatrics
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Sonia Mehta, MD

Vitreoretinal Diseases and Surgery Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Retinal Disorders

Vikas Mehta, MD, MPH

Montefiore Medical Center|Albert Einstein College of Medicine
How To Do Throat Procedures

Denise Millstine, MD

Mayo Clinic
Integrative, Complementary, and Alternative Medicine

L. Brent Mitchell, MD

Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, University of Calgary
Arrhythmias and Conduction Disorders

Richard T. Miyamoto, MD, MS

Indiana University School of Medicine
Middle Ear and Tympanic Membrane Disorders

Joel L. Moake, MD

Baylor College of Medicine|J. W. Cox Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering, Rice University
Coagulation Disorders, Hemostasis, Thrombotic Disorders

Paul K. Mohabir, MD

Stanford University School of Medicine
Care of the Surgical Patient

Julie S. Moldenhauer, MD

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia|The University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine
Abnormalities and Complications of Labor and Delivery, Postpartum Care and Associated Disorders

Stephanie M. Moleski, MD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Approach to the Gastrointestinal Patient, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Peter J. Moley, MD

Hospital for Special Surgery|Weill Cornell Medical College
Neck and Back Pain

Vanessa Moll, MD, DESA

Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Critical Care Medicine|Emory University Hospital Midtown
Respiratory Arrest

Richard E. Moon, MD

Duke University Medical Center|Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology
Injury During Diving or Work in Compressed Air

John E. Morley, MB, BCh

Saint Louis University School of Medicine
Undernutrition

Sheldon R. Morris, MD, MPH

University of California San Diego
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

Sam P. Most, MD

Stanford University Medical Center
Facial Trauma

Christine Moutier, MD

American Foundation For Suicide Prevention
Suicidal Behavior and Self-Injury

Ann P. Murchison, MD, MPH

Wills Eye Hospital|Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University
Eye Trauma

David G. Mutch, MD

Washington University School of Medicine
Uterine Fibroids

Edward A. Nardell, MD

Harvard Medical School|Brigham & Women's Hospital|T.H.Chan Harvard School of Public Health
Mycobacteria

Alana M. Nevares, MD

The University of Vermont Medical Center
Autoimmune Rheumatic Disorders

George Newman, MD, PhD

Albert Einstein Medical Center
Neurologic Examination

Minhhuyen Nguyen, MD

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple University
Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Frank O'Brien, MD

Washington University in St. Louis|Washington University School of Medicine
Glomerular Disorders, Tubulointerstitial Diseases

Adedamola A. Ogunniyi, MD

Harbor-UCLA Medical Center|David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles
Motion Sickness

Gerald F. O’Malley, DO

Grand Strand Regional Medical Center|Sidney Kimmel School of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
Poisoning, Recreational Drugs and Intoxicants

Rika O’Malley, MD

Grand Strand Medical Center
Poisoning, Recreational Drugs and Intoxicants

Victor E. Ortega, MD, PhD

Mayo Clinic Arizona
Asthma and Related Disorders

Osvaldo Padilla, MD, MPH

Texas Tech Health Science Center|Paul L Foster School of Medicine
Normal Laboratory Values

Federico E Parodi, MD

University of North Carolina School of Medicine
Diseases of the Aorta and Its Branches

Bhakti K. Patel, MD

University of Chicago
Respiratory Failure and Mechanical Ventilation

Avinash S. Patil, MD

University of Arizona College of Medicine|Valley Perinatal Services
Drugs in Pregnancy

Richard D. Pearson, MD

University of Virginia School of Medicine
Extraintestinal Protozoa, Nematodes (Roundworms)

Alicia R. Pekarsky, MD

State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Upstate Golisano Children's Hospital|Upstate Medical University/Golisano Children’s Hospital
Child Maltreatment

Daniel M. Peraza, MD

Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth University
Bullous Diseases

Cory Perugino, DO

Massachusetts General Hospital|Harvard Medical School
IgG4-Related Disease

Richard Pescatore, DO

Delaware Division of Public Health|Drexel University College of Medicine
How To Do Anesthesia Procedures

Frank Pessler, MD, PhD

Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research
Bone Disorders in Children, Connective Tissue Disorders in Children

William A. Petri, Jr, MD, PhD

University of Virginia School of Medicine|University of Virginia
Approach to Parasitic Infections, Cestodes (Tapeworms), Intestinal Protozoa and Microsporidia, Rickettsiae and Related Organisms, Trematodes (Flukes), Nematodes (Roundworms)

Katharine Anne Phillips, MD

Weill Cornell Medical College|New York-Presbyterian Hospital|Albert Medical School of Brown University
Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders

Tania J. Phillips, MD

Boston University School of Medicine
Pressure Injury

JoAnn V. Pinkerton, MD

University of Virginia Health System
Menopause, Menstrual Abnormalities

Salvador E. Portugal, DO

New York University, Robert I. Grossman School of Medicine|NYU Langone Orthopedic Center
Rehabilitation

Nina N. Powell-Hamilton, MD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Chromosome and Gene Anomalies

Glenn M. Preminger, MD

Duke Comprehensive Kidney Stone Center|Duke University Medical Center
Obstructive Uropathy, Urinary Calculi

Judith J. Prochaska, PhD, MPH

Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University
Tobacco Use

Levi D. Procter, MD

Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine
Shock and Fluid Resuscitation

Vishnu Priya Pulipati, MD

Warren Clinic Endocrinology
Lipid Disorders

Christopher P. Raab, MD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Miscellaneous Disorders in Infants and Children

Ronald Rabinowitz, MD

University of Rochester Medical Center|Golisano Children's Hospital at Strong
Congenital Renal and Genitourinary Anomalies

Pedro T. Ramirez, MD

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Gynecologic Tumors

Anupama K. Rao, MD

Rush University Medical Center
Cardiac Tumors

Robert W. Rebar, MD

Western Michigan University Homer Stryker M.D. School of Medicine
Infertility

Wingfield E. Rehmus, MD, MPH

University of British Columbia|BC Children’s Hospital, Division of Dermatology
Bacterial Skin Infections

Sanjay G. Revankar, MD

Wayne State University School of Medicine
Fungi

Douglas J. Rhee, MD

University Hospitals/Case Western Reserve University
Glaucoma

David Richards, MD

University of Colorado School of Medicine|Denver Health Medical Center
Drowning

Melvin I. Roat, MD, FACS

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Wills Eye Hospital
Conjunctival and Scleral Disorders, Corneal Disorders

Beryl J. Rosenstein, MD

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Cystic Fibrosis (CF)

Laurence Z. Rubenstein, MD, MPH

University of Oklahoma College of Medicine|University of California, Los Angeles
Falls in Older People

Michael Rubin, MDCM

New York Presbyterian Hospital-Cornell Medical Center
Craniocervical Junction Abnormalities, Neuro-ophthalmologic and Cranial Nerve Disorders, Peripheral Nervous System and Motor Unit Disorders, Spinal Cord Disorders, Inherited Muscular Disorders

Sean R. Rudnick, MD

Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Porphyrias

Thomas M. Ruenger, MD, PhD

Georg-August University of Göttingen, Germany|Lahey Hospital and Medical Center
Dermatitis

Atenodoro R. Ruiz, Jr., MD

The Medical City, Pasig City, Philippines
Malabsorption Syndromes

Daniel P. Runde, MD, MME

University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics
Electrical and Lightning Injuries

J. Mark Ruscin, PharmD, FCCP, BCPS

Southern Illinois University Edwardsville School of Pharmacy
Drug Therapy in Older Adults

Charles Sabatino, JD

American Bar Association|Georgetown University Law Center
Medicolegal Issues

Birendra P. Sah, MD, FCCP

Upstate Medical University
Sarcoidosis

Gloria Salvo, MD

MD Anderson Cancer Center
Gynecologic Tumors

Vaishali Sanchorawala, MD

Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center
Amyloidosis

Christopher Sanford, MD, MPH, DTM&H

University of Washington
Medical Aspects of Travel

Ravindra Sarode, MD

The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Transfusion Medicine

Clarence T. Sasaki, MD

Yale University School of Medicine
Laryngeal Disorders

Margot L. Savoy, MD, MPH

Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University|American Academy of Family Physicians
Immunization

Bradley A. Schiff, MD

Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital of Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Tumors of the Head and Neck

Shira A. Schlesinger, MD, MPH

Harbor-UCLA Medical Center|Harbor-UCLA Medical Center|Newport Beach Fire Department
Cardiac Arrest and CPR

Steven Schmitt, MD

Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University|Cleveland Clinic
Infections of Joints and Bones

Richard J. Schwab, MD

University of Pennsylvania, Division of Sleep Medicine|Penn Sleep Center
Sleep and Wakefulness Disorders

Sanjay Sethi, MD

University at Buffalo, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences
Acute Bronchitis, Lung Abscess, Pneumonia

Udayan K. Shah, MD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/A.I. duPont Hospital for Children
Miscellaneous Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders in Children

Laura Shane-McWhorter, PharmD

University of Utah College of Pharmacy
Dietary Supplements

Michael J. Shea, MD

Michigan Medicine at the University of Michigan
Approach to the Cardiac Patient, Symptoms of Cardiovascular Disorders, Cardiovascular Tests and Procedures

Patrick J. Shenot, MD

Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
Penile and Scrotal Disorders, Voiding Disorders

Stephen D. Silberstein, MD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Headache

Adam J. Singer, MD

Stony Brook University, Renaissance School of Medicine
Lacerations and Abrasions

Michael J. Smith, MD, MSCE

Duke University School of Medicine
Childhood Vaccination

David Spiegel, MD

Stanford University School of Medicine|Stanford University School of Medicine
Dissociative Disorders

Manuals Staff,

Ready Reference Guides

Jason Stankiewicz, MD

University of Maryland Medical Center
Pulmonary Rehabilitation

Richard G. Stefanacci, DO, MGH, MBA

Thomas Jefferson University, Jefferson College of Population Health
Approach to the Geriatric Patient, Aging and Quality Of Life

Dan J. Stein, MD, PhD

University of Cape Town
Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders

Trevor Steinbach, MD

University of Colorado
Bronchiectasis and Atelectasis

David R. Steinberg, MD

Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
Hand Disorders

Jan J. Stokosa, CP

American Prosthetics Institute, Ltd|Stokosa Prosthetic Clinic
Limb Prosthetics

Matthew J. Streitz, MD

San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium|Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
How To Care for Wounds and Lacerations, How To Reduce Dislocations and Subluxations, How To Do Skin, Soft-Tissue, and Minor Surgical Procedures

Kingman P. Strohl, MD

Case School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University|Louis Stokes Cleveland DVA Medical Center
Sleep Apnea

Tisha Suboc, MD

Rush University
Cardiomyopathies

Stephen Brian Sulkes, MD

Golisano Children’s Hospital at Strong, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Behavioral Concerns and Problems in Children, Learning and Developmental Disorders

Rosalyn Sulyanto, DMD, MS

Boston Children's Hospital|Harvard School of Dental Medicine
Approach to the Dental Patient

Ranya N. Sweis, MD, MS

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Coronary Artery Disease

Carol Tamminga, MD

UT Southwestern Medical Dallas
Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

David Tanen, MD

David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA|Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
Heat Illness

Victor F. Tapson, MD

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center|Clinical Research for the Women’s Guild Lung Institute
Pulmonary Embolism (PE)

Koon K. Teo, MBBCh, PhD

McMaster University
Peripheral Arterial Disorders

Mary Territo, MD

David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
Leukopenias

Brenda L. Tesini, MD

University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
COVID-19, Enteroviruses, Pox Viruses, Respiratory Viruses, Infections in Neonates, Miscellaneous Viral Infections in Infants and Children

George Thanassoulis, MD, MSc

McGill University|McGill University Health Center
Arteriosclerosis

Danielle Tholey, MD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
Approach to the Patient With Liver Disease, Drugs and the Liver, Liver Masses and Granulomas

David R. Thomas, MD

St. Louis University School of Medicine
Nutritional Support

Andrea D. Thompson, MD, PhD

University of Michigan
Symptoms of Cardiovascular Disorders

James T. Ubertalli, DMD

Hingham, MA
Periodontal Disorders

Nimish Vakil, MD

University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease

Philbert Yuan Van, MD

US Army Reserve|Oregon Health and Science University
Abdominal Trauma

Maria T. Vazquez-Pertejo, MD, FACP

Wellington Regional Medical Center
Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Disease, Anaerobic Bacteria, Gram-Negative Bacilli, Gram-Negative Cocci and Coccobacilli, Gram-Positive Cocci, Gram-Positive Bacilli, Spirochetes

David Vearrier, MD, MPH

University of Mississippi Medical Center|University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine
Occupational and Environmental Medicine

M. Cristina Victorio, MD

Akron Children's Hospital|Northeast Ohio Medical University
Neurocutaneous Syndromes, Neurologic Disorders in Children

Alexandra Villa-Forte, MD, MPH

Cleveland Clinic
Approach to the Patient With Joint Symptoms, How To Do Arthrocentesis, How To Do Bursal Aspiration and Injection, Pain in and Around Joints, Vasculitis

Michael N. Wajdowicz, DDS

Veterans Administration|Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Dental Emergencies

Aaron E. Walfish, MD

Mount Sinai Medical Center
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

B. Timothy Walsh, MD

College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University|New York State Psychiatric Institute
Eating Disorders

Andrew W. Walter, MS, MD

Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Perinatal Hematologic Disorders

Michael R. Wasserman, MD

California Association of Long Term Care Medicine
Nonspecific Symptoms

James C. Watson, MD

Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science
Pain

Geoffrey A. Weinberg, MD

Golisano Children’s Hospital|University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection in Infants and Children, Miscellaneous Bacterial Infections in Infants and Children

Thomas G. Weiser, MD, MPH

Stanford University School of Medicine
Thoracic Trauma

Gregory L. Wells, MD

Ada West Dermatology and Dermatopathology|Idaho College of Osteopathic Medicine
Cancers of the Skin

Brian J. Werth, PharmD

University of Washington School of Pharmacy
Bacteria and Antibacterial Drugs

Kendrick Alan Whitney, DPM

Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine
Foot and Ankle Disorders

Robert A. Wise, MD

Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center|Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Related Disorders

Karen L. Wood, MD

Grant Medical Center, Ohio Health
Tests of Pulmonary Function (PFT)

Adrienne Youdim, MD

David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA|Cedars Sinai Medical Center|Dehl Nutrition
Nutrition: General Considerations, Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome

William F. Young, Jr, MD, MSc

Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
Principles of Endocrinology

Thomas M. Yuill, PhD

University of Wisconsin-Madison
Arboviruses, Arenaviridae, and Filoviridae

Zhiwei Zhang, MD

Loma Linda University School of Medicine|VA Loma Linda Healthcare System
Renovascular Disorders

Mark Zimmerman, MD

Rhode Island Hospital|Brown University School of Medicine
Personality Disorders