Merck Manual

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Contributors

Content last modified Oct 2020

We gratefully acknowledge the expertise of the contributors to our current online version. The subject(s) that they are responsible for are listed after their affiliations.

Denise M. Aaron, MD
Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center
Noncancerous Skin Growths , Fungal Skin Infections

Bola Adamolekun, MD
University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Seizure Disorders

Chris G. Adigun, MD
Dermatology & Laser Center of Chapel Hill
Nail Disorders

Mehdi Afshar, MD
University of Toronto
Atherosclerosis

Gerald L. Andriole, MD
Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine
Benign Prostate Disorders

Parswa Ansari, MD
Hofstra Northwell-Lenox Hill Hospital, New York
Anal and Rectal Disorders , Gastrointestinal Bleeding , Gastrointestinal Emergencies

Noel A. Armenakas, MD
Weill Cornell Medical School|New York Presbyterian Hospital and Lenox Hill Hospital
Injury to the Urinary Tract and Genitals

Guy P. Armstrong, MD
North Shore Hospital, Auckland|Waitemata Cardiology, Auckland Valvular Disorders
Endocarditis , Heart Valve Disorders

Thomas Arnold, MD
Department of Emergency Medicine, LSU Health Sciences Center Shreveport|Lousiana Poison Center
Bites and Stings

Raul Artal-Mittelmark, MD
Saint Louis University School of Medicine
Normal Pregnancy , Normal Labor and Delivery , High-Risk Pregnancy

Evelyn Attia, MD
Columbia University Medical Center, New York State Psychiatric Institute|Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital
Eating Disorders

Debra Bakerjian, PhD, APRN
Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing, UC Davis
Providing Care to Older People

George L. Bakris, MD
University of Chicago School of Medicine
High Blood Pressure

Arcangela Lattari Balest, MD
University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine|Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC
Lung and Breathing Problems in Newborns , General Problems in Newborns

David H. Barad, MD, MS
Center for Human Reproduction
Diagnosis of Gynecologic Disorders , Symptoms of Gynecologic Disorders

Peggy P. Barco, OTD, OTR/L, BSW, SCDCM, CDRS, FAOTA
Washington University Medical School
The Older Driver

Robert A. Barish, MD, MBA
University of Illinois at Chicago
Bites and Stings

Jennifer M. Barker, MD
Children's Hospital Colorado, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology
Polyglandular Deficiency Syndromes

John W. Barnhill, MD
Weill Cornell Medical College and New York Presbyterian Hospital
Anxiety and Stress-Related Disorders

Michael Bartel, MD, PhD
Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple University
Pancreatitis

Rosemary Basson, MD
University of British Columbia and Vancouver Hospital|UBC Sexual Medicine Program
Sexual Dysfunction in Women

Joel A. Baum, MD
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Diverticular Disease

Lee B. Beerman, MD
Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
Birth Defects of the Heart

Julia Benedetti, MD
Harvard Medical School|Tufts University School of Medicine
Sunlight and Skin Damage , Biology of the Skin , Hypersensitivity and Inflammatory Skin Disorders

James R. Berenson, MD
Institute for Myeloma and Bone Cancer Research
Plasma Cell Disorders

John L. Berk, MD
Amyloidosis Center, Boston University Medical Center
Amyloidosis

Barbara J. Berkman, DSW, PhD
Columbia University School of Social Work
Social Issues Affecting Older People , Elder Abuse

Richard W. Besdine, MD
Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University
The Aging Body , Aging and Quality of Life

Rajeev Bhatia, MD
Phoenix Children's Hospital|Akron Children's Hospital
Respiratory Disorders in Infants and Children

Scott W. Biest, MD
Washington University School of Medicine
Fibroids

Joseph J. Biundo, MD
Tulane Medical Center
Muscle, Bursa, and Tendon Disorders

Donald W. Black, MD
University of Iowa, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine
Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance

Karen Blackstone, MD
George Washington University|Washington DC Veterans Administration Medical Center
Death and Dying

Steven D. Blatt, MD
State University of New York, Upstate Medical University|State University of New York, Upstate Medical University
Social Issues Affecting Children and Their Families

Marcy B. Bolster, MD
Harvard Medical School|Massachusetts General Hospital
Osteoporosis

Herbert L. Bonkovsky, MD
Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Porphyrias

Thomas G. Boyce, MD, MPH
University of North Carolina School of Medicine
Gastroenteritis

Simeon A. Boyadjiev Boyd, MD
University of California, Davis
Birth Defects of the Face, Bones, Joints, and Muscles

Christopher J. Brady, MD
Wilmer Eye Institute, Retina Division, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Symptoms of Eye Disorders

Evan M. Braunstein, MD, PhD
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Anemia

George R. Brown, MD
East Tennessee State University
Gender Dysphoria , Paraphilias and Paraphilic Disorders , Sexuality

Erika F. Brutsaert, MD
New York Medical College|Westchester Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Disorders of Blood Sugar Metabolism

Larry M. Bush, MD, FACP
Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University|University of Miami-Miller School of Medicine
Bacterial Infections: Anaerobic Bacteria , Meningococcal Infections , Bacterial Infections: Overview , Bacterial Infections: Gram-Negative Bacteria , Biology of Infectious Disease , Bacterial Infections: Gram-Positive Bacteria , Bacterial Infections: Spirochetes

Jerrold T. Bushberg, PhD, DABMP
School of Medicine, University of California, Davis|The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
Radiation Injury

Edward R. Cachay, MD, MAS
University of California, San Diego
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection

Andrew Calabria, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania|The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Hormonal Disorders in Children

Danielle Campagne, MD
University of San Francisco - Fresno
Dislocations , Sprains and Other Soft-Tissue Injuries , Fractures

John D. Carmichael, MD
Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California|USC Pitutiary Center
Pituitary Gland Disorders

David B. Carr, MD
Washington University School of Medicine
The Older Driver

Damien Wilson Carter, MD
Tufts University School of Medicine|Maine Medical Center
Burns

Thomas Cascino, MD, MSc
University of Michigan
Diagnosis of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders

Frances E. Casey, MD, MPH
Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center
Family Planning

Julia F. Charles, MD, PhD
Harvard Medical School|Brigham and Women's Hospital
Paget Disease of Bone

Ji Y. Chong, MD
Weill Cornell Medical College|New York Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist Hospital
Stroke (CVA)

Paul H. Chung, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University
Diagnosis of Kidney and Urinary Tract Disorders

Jesse M. Civan, MD
Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
Fibrosis and Cirrhosis of the Liver

Paula J. Clayton, MD
University of Minnesota School of Medicine
Suicidal Behavior and Self-Injury

Erin G. Clifton, PhD
Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan
Domestic Violence and Rape

Elizabeth L. Cobbs, MD
George Washington University|Washington DC Veterans Administration Medical Center
Death and Dying

William J. Cochran, MD
Geisinger Clinic|Temple University School of Medicine
Gastrointestinal (GI) and Liver Problems in Newborns , Birth Defects of the Digestive Tract , Digestive Disorders in Children

Rafael Antonio Ching Companioni, MD
Digestive Diseases Center
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) , Diverticular Disease

Deborah M. Consolini, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Symptoms in Infants and Children , Care of Newborns and Infants , Health Supervision of Well Children

André V Coombs, MBBS
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
Surgery

Başak Çoruh, MD
University of Washington
Bronchiectasis and Atelectasis

William Coryell, MD
Carver College of Medicine at University of Iowa
Mood Disorders

Jimena Cubillos, MD
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Birth Defects of the Urinary Tract and Genitals

Patricia A. Daly, MD
University of Virginia
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

Daniel F. Danzl, MD
University of Louisville School of Medicine
Cold Injuries

Shinjita Das, MD
Harvard Medical School|Massachusetts General Hospital
Psoriasis and Scaling Disorders , Pigment Disorders , Sweating Disorders

Michael H. Davidson, MD, FACC, FNLA
University of Chicago Medicine
Cholesterol Disorders

Peter J. Delves, PhD
University College London, London, UK
Allergic Reactions and Other Hypersensitivity Disorders , Biology of the Immune System

Matt Demczko, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University|Division of Diagnostic Referral Services, Nemours/A.I. duPont Hospital for Children
Hereditary Metabolic Disorders

Rebecca Dezube, MD, MHS
Johns Hopkins University
Biology of the Lungs and Airways , Symptoms of Lung Disorders , Diagnosis of Lung Disorders

Deepinder K. Dhaliwal, MD, L.Ac
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine|UPMC Eye Center
Refractive Disorders

Matthew D. Di Guglielmo, MD, PhD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Stool Incontinence in Children

Joel E. Dimsdale, MD
University of California, San Diego
Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

James G. H. Dinulos, MD
Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth|University of Connecticut
Viral Skin Infections , Parasitic Skin Infections , Cornification Disorders

James D. Douketis, MD
McMaster University|St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton
Venous Disorders , Lymphatic Disorders

Antonette T. Dulay, MD
Main Line Health System|Axia Women’s Health
Complications of Pregnancy

Jeffrey S. Dungan, MD
Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine
Detection of Genetic Disorders

Josephine Elia, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/A.I. duPont Hospital for Children
Mental Health Disorders in Children and Adolescents

Ashkan Emadi, MD, PhD
University of Maryland
Leukemias

B. Mark Evers, MD
Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky|University of Kentucky Department of Surgery
Carcinoid Tumors

Stephen J. Falchek, MD
Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children|Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University
Birth Defects of the Brain and Spinal Cord

Mark A. Farber, MD, FACS
University of North Carolina|University of North Carolina Aortic Network
Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection

Abimbola Farinde, PhD, PharmD
Columbia Southern University, Orange Beach, AL
Drug Dynamics

James Fernandez, MD, PhD
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University|Louis Stokes VA Medical Center, Wade Park|Cleveland Clinic
Immunodeficiency Disorders

Teodoro Ernesto Figueroa, MD
Nemours/A.I. duPont Nemours Hospital for Children|Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University
Urinary Incontinence in Children

Nowell M. Fine, MD, SM
Libin Cardiovascular Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary
Heart Failure

David N. Finegold, MD
University of Pittsburgh
Genetics

Michael B. First, MD
Columbia University|New York State Psychiatric Institute
Overview of Mental Health Care

Marvin P. Fried, MD
Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital of Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Nose and Sinus Disorders , Symptoms of Nose and Throat Disorders

Lara A. Friel, MD, PhD
University of Texas Health Medical School at Houston, McGovern Medical School
Pregnancy Complicated by Disease

Enrica Fung, MD, MPH
Loma Linda University School of Medicine|VA Loma Linda Healthcare System
Cystic Kidney Disorders

Robert Peter Gale, MD, PhD
Imperial College London
Prevention and Treatment of Cancer , Overview of Cancer

Pierluigi Gambetti, MD
Case Western Reserve University
Prion Diseases

James Garrity, MD
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
Eye Socket Disorders , Eyelid and Tearing Disorders , Biology of the Eyes , Optic Nerve Disorders

Frank Genese, DO
Wake Forest School of Medicine
Asthma

Mark T. Gladwin, MD
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine|Pittsburgh Heart, Lung, and Blood Vascular Medicine Institute
Pulmonary Hypertension

Stephen Gluckman, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania|Penn Global Medicine
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Oluwatosin Goje, MD, MSCR
Cleveland Clinic, Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University
Vaginal Infections and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Steven A. Goldman, MD, PhD
University of Rochester Medical Center|University of Copenhagen Faculty of Medicine|Sana Biotechnology
Tumors of the Nervous System

Hector A. Gonzalez-Usigli, MD
HE UMAE Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente|Movement Disorders Clinic
Movement Disorders

Stuart B. Goodman, MD, PhD
Stanford University
Osteonecrosis

Jonathan Gotfried, MD
Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University
Diagnosis of Digestive Disorders , Symptoms of Digestive Disorders

Evan G. Graber, DO
Sydney Kimmel Medical College|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Growth and Development

Ayman Grada, MD, MS
Department of Dermatology, Boston University School of Medicine
Pressure Sores

John E. Greenlee, MD
University of Utah School of Medicine
Brain Infections , Meningitis

Renee Gresh,
Nemours A.I. duPont Hospital for Children
Childhood Cancers

Ashley B. Grossman, MD
University of Oxford; Fellow, Green-Templeton College|Barts and the London School of Medicine|Royal Free Hospital, London
Adrenal Gland Disorders

Ravindu Gunatilake, MD
Valley Perinatal Services|Creighton University School of Medicine-Phoenix
Drug Use During Pregnancy

Jessica I. Gupta, MD
Michigan Medicine at the University of Michigan
Biology of the Heart and Blood Vessels

James Peter Adam Hamilton, MD
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Iron Overload

Margaret R. Hammerschlag, MD
State University of New York Downstate Medical Center
Chlamydial Infections and Mycoplasmas

L. Aimee Hechanova, MD
Texas Tech University|University Medical Center
Dialysis , Disorders of Kidney Tubules

R. Phillip Heine, MD
Duke University Medical Center
Symptoms During Pregnancy

Bernard J. Hennessy, DDS
Texas A&M University, College of Dentistry
Tooth Disorders , Lip and Tongue Disorders , Symptoms of Oral and Dental Disorders

Jerome M. Hershman, MD, MS
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA|West Los Angeles VA Medical Center
Thyroid Gland Disorders

Martin Hertl, MD, PhD
Rush University Medical Center
Transplantation

Irvin H. Hirsch, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University
Biology of the Male Reproductive System , Sexual Dysfunction in Men

Brian D. Hoit, MD
Case Western Reserve University|University Hospitals, Case Medical Center
Pericardial Disease and Myocarditis

Juebin Huang, MD, PhD
Department of Neurology, University of Mississippi Medical Center
Delirium and Dementia , Brain Dysfunction

Michael C. Iannuzzi, MD, MBA
Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA.|GeneToBe LLC
Sarcoidosis

Hakan Ilaslan, MD
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University|Cleveland Clinic
Bone and Joint Tumors

Talha H. Imam, MD
University of Riverside School of Medicine|Kaiser Permanente
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

Whitney Jackson, MD
University of Colorado School of Medicine
Blood Vessel Disorders of the Liver , Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

Harry S. Jacob, MD, DHC
University of Minnesota Medical School|HemOnc Today
Spleen Disorders

Arif Jivan, MD, PhD
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Coronary Artery Disease

Larry E. Johnson, MD, PhD
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences|Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System
Minerals , Vitamins

Brian D. Johnston, Exercise Specialist
International Association of Resistance Training|Prescribed Exercise Clinics
Exercise and Fitness

Michael J. Joyce, MD
Cleveland Clinic Lerner School of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University
Bone and Joint Tumors

James O. Judge, MD
University of Connecticut School of Medicine
Gait Disorders in Older People

Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
First Aid

Daniel B. Kaplan, PhD, LICSW
Adelphi University School of Social Work
Social Issues Affecting Older People , Elder Abuse

Kenneth M. Kaye, MD
Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Herpesvirus Infections

David M. Kaylie, MS, MD
Duke University Medical Center
Symptoms of Ear Disorders , Biology of the Ears, Nose, and Throat

Robert L. Keith, MD
Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critial Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Eastern Colorado VA Healthcare System, University of Colorado
Tumors of the Lungs

Jonette E. Keri, MD, PhD
University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine|Miami VA Hospital
Treatment of Skin Disorders , Acne and Related Disorders

Bradley W. Kesser, MD
University of Virginia School of Medicine
Outer Ear Disorders

Mashal Khan, MD
Weill Cornell Medicine|NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital
Substance-Related Disorders

Leila M. Khazaeni, MD
Loma Linda University School of Medicine
Eye Disorders in Children , Cataract , Diagnosis of Eye Disorders

Charlie C. Kilpatrick, MD, MEd
Baylor College of Medicine|Ben Taub Hospital
Miscellaneous Gynecologic Abnormalities , Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)

Gary D. Klasser, DMD
Louisiana State University School of Dentistry
Temporomandibular Disorders

Jennifer Knudtson, MD
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Biology of the Female Reproductive System

Mehmet Kocak, MD
Rush University Medical Center
Common Imaging Tests

Apostolos Kontzias, MD
Stony Brook University School of Medicine
Joint Disorders , Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes

Mary Ann Kosir, MD
Wayne State University School of Medicine|Karmanos Cancer Center
Breast Disorders

Laura D Kramer, PhD
Wadsworth Center, NYSDOH|School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany
Overview of Viral Infections

Sonal Kumar, MD, MPH
Weill Cornell Medical College|New York Presbyterian Hospital
Hepatitis

David J. Kuter, MD, DPhil
Harvard Medical School|Massachusetts General Hospital
Platelet Disorders , Symptoms and Diagnosis of Blood Disorders , Bleeding Due to Abnormal Blood Vessels

Kara C. LaMattina, MD
Boston University School of Medicine
Uveitis and Related Disorders

Lewis Landsberg, MD
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

Abigail R. Lara, MD
University of Colorado
Environmental Lung Diseases

Christopher J. LaRosa, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania|Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
Congenital Kidney Tubular Disorders

Jennie York Law, MD
University of Maryland
Leukemias

Jennifer Le, PharmD, MAS, BCPS-ID, FIDSA, FCCP, FCSHP
Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego
Administration and Kinetics of Drugs

Joyce Lee, MD, MAS
University of Colorado Denver
Autoimmune Disorders of the Lungs , Interstitial Lung Diseases

Magda Lenartowicz, MD
Prevention

John P. Leonard, MD
Weill Cornell Medicine
Lymphomas

Michael C. Levin, MD
College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan
Diagnosis of Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders , Symptoms of Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders , Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Related Disorders

Wendy S. Levinbook, MD
Hartford Dermatology Associates
Hair Disorders

Andrea R. Levine, MD
University of Maryland School of Medicine
Rehabilitation for Lung and Airway Disorders , Pulmonary Hypertension

Sharon Levy, MD, MPH
Harvard Medical School|Boston Children's Hospital
Problems in Adolescents

James L. Lewis III, MD
Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincent’s Ascension Health, Birmingham
Electrolyte Balance , Acid-Base Balance , Water Balance

Paul L. Liebert, MD
Tomah Memorial Hospital, Tomah, WI
Sports Injuries

Jane Liesveld, MD
James P. Wilmot Cancer Institute, University of Rochester Medical Center
Myeloproliferative Disorders

Richard W. Light, MD
Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Pleural and Mediastinal Disorders

Christina C. Lindenmeyer, MD
Cleveland Clinic|Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University
Biology of the Liver and Gallbladder , Diagnosis of Liver, Gallbladder, and Biliary Disorders , Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders

Alexa Lindley, MD, MPH
Department of Family Medicine, University of Washington
Travel and Health

Sunny A. Linnebur, PharmD, BCPS, BCGP
University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus
Aging and Drugs

James H. Liu, MD
UH Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University|Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
Endometriosis

Phillip Low, MD
College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic|Mayo Clinic
Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

Andrew M. Luks, MD
University of Washington
Altitude Illness

Lawrence R. Lustig, MD
Columbia University Medical Center and New York Presbyterian Hospital
Hearing Loss and Deafness , Inner Ear Disorders

Kristle Lee Lynch, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania
Esophageal and Swallowing Disorders

Shalini S. Lynch, PharmD
University of California San Francisco School of Pharmacy
Over-the-Counter Drugs , Overview of Drugs , Factors Affecting Response to Drugs

Joanne Lynn, MD, MA, MS
Altarum Institute
Death and Dying

Geetha Maddukuri, MD
Saint Louis University|VASTLHCS, St. Louis
Symptoms of Kidney and Urinary Tract Disorders

James M. Madsen, MD, MPH
U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD)
Mass-Casualty Weapons

Paul M. Maggio, MD, MBA
Stanford University Medical Center
Bacteremia, Sepsis, and Septic Shock

Kenneth Maiese, MD
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute|Rutgers University
Biology of the Nervous System , Coma and Impaired Consciousness

Zubair Malik, MD
Temple University Hospital
Bezoars and Foreign Bodies of the Digestive Tract

Anna Malkina, MD
University of California, San Francisco
Kidney Failure

Brian F. Mandell, MD, PhD
Cleveland Clinic
Gout and Calcium Pyrophosphate Arthritis

Gordon Mao, MD
Johns Hopkins University
Head Injuries , Spinal Injuries

J. Ryan Mark, MD
Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University
Cancers of the Kidney and Genitourinary Tract

Daphne E. Smith Marsh, PharmD, BC-ADM, CDE
College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago|Mile Square Health Center, University of Illinois at Chicago
Brand-Name and Generic Drugs , Adverse Drug Reactions

Peter Martin, MD
Weill Cornell Medicine
Lymphomas

Robert S. McKelvie, MD, PhD
Western University|St. Joseph's Health Care
Sports and the Heart

Jessica E. McLaughlin, MD
Medical University of South Carolina
Biology of the Female Reproductive System

Jay Mehta, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania|The Children's Hospital of Pediatrics
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)

Sonia Mehta, MD
Vitreoretinal Diseases and Surgery Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Retinal Disorders

Denise Millstine, MD
Mayo Clinic
Integrative, Complementary, and Alternative Medicine

L. Brent Mitchell, MD
Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, University of Calgary
Abnormal Heart Rhythms

Richard T. Miyamoto, MD, MS
Indiana University School of Medicine
Middle Ear Disorders

Joel L. Moake, MD
Baylor College of Medicine|J. W. Cox Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering, Rice University
Blood Clotting Process , Excessive Clotting , Bleeding Due to Clotting Disorders

Paul K. Mohabir, MD
Stanford University School of Medicine
Surgery

Julie S. Moldenhauer, MD
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia|The University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine
Complications of Labor and Delivery , Postdelivery Period

Stephanie M. Moleski, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Peter J. Moley, MD
Hospital for Special Surgery|Weill Cornell Medical College
Low Back and Neck Pain

Richard E. Moon, MD
Duke University Medical Center
Diving and Compressed Air Injuries

John E. Morley, MB, BCh
Saint Louis University School of Medicine
Undernutrition , Biology of the Endocrine System

Alex Moroz, MD
New York University School of Medicine
Rehabilitation

Sheldon R. Morris, MD, MPH
University of California San Diego
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Sam P. Most, MD
Stanford University School of Medicine
Facial Injuries

Ann P. Murchison, MD, MPH
Wills Eye Emergency Department, Wills Eye Hospital|Thomas Jefferson University
Eye Injuries

David G. Mutch, MD
Washington University School of Medicine
Fibroids

Edward A. Nardell, MD
Harvard Medical School|Brigham & Women's Hospital
Tuberculosis and Related Infections

Alana M. Nevares, MD
The University of Vermont Medical Center
Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue

Minhhuyen Nguyen, MD
Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple University
Tumors of the Digestive System

Alexander S. Niven, MD
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences|Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic
Bronchiectasis and Atelectasis

Frank O'Brien, MD
Washington University in St. Louis
Kidney Filtering Disorders

Adedamola A. Ogunniyi, MD
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center|David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
Motion Sickness

Gerald F. O’Malley, DO
Grand Strand Regional Medical Center|Sidney Kimmel School of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
Poisoning , Recreational Drugs and Intoxicants

Rika O’Malley, MD
Albert Einstein Medical Center
Poisoning , Recreational Drugs and Intoxicants

Victor E. Ortega, MD, PhD
Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research, Wake Forest School of Medicine
Asthma

Federico E Parodi, MD
University of North Carolina School of Medicine
Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection

Bhakti K. Patel, MD
University of Chicago
Respiratory Failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Avinash S. Patil, MD
University of Arizona
Drug Use During Pregnancy

Richard D. Pearson, MD
University of Virginia School of Medicine
Parasitic Infections: Cestodes (Tapeworms) , Parasitic Infections: Trematodes (Flukes) , Parasitic Infections: Intestinal Protozoa and Microsporidia , Parasitic Infections: Nematodes (Roundworms) , Parasitic Infections: Extraintestinal Protozoa

Alicia R. Pekarsky, MD
State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Upstate Golisano Children's Hospital
Child Neglect and Abuse

Daniel M. Peraza, MD
Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth University
Blistering Diseases

Cory Perugino, DO
Massachusetts General Hospital|Harvard Medical School
IgG4-Related Disease

Frank Pessler, MD, PhD
Hannover, Germany
Bone Disorders in Children , Connective Tissue Disorders in Children

William A. Petri, Jr, MD, PhD
University of Virginia School of Medicine
Rickettsial and Related Infections , Parasitic Infections: An Overview

Katharine A. Phillips, MD
Weill Cornell Medical College|New York-Presbyterian Hospital
Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders

Tania J. Phillips, MD
Boston University School of Medicine
Pressure Sores

JoAnn V. Pinkerton, MD
University of Virginia Health System|The North American Menopause Society
Menstrual Disorders and Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding , Menopause

Robert S. Porter, MD
The One-Page Manual of Health

Nina N. Powell-Hamilton, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Overview of Birth Defects , Chromosome and Gene Abnormalities

Glenn M. Preminger, MD
Duke University Medical Center|Duke Comprehensive Kidney Stone Center
Biology of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract , Obstruction of the Urinary Tract , Stones in the Urinary Tract

Judith J. Prochaska, PhD, MPH
Department of Medicine, Stanford University
Tobacco Use

Levi D. Procter, MD
Virginia Commonwealth University
Low Blood Pressure and Shock

Christopher P. Raab, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Miscellaneous Disorders in Infants and Young Children

Ronald Rabinowitz, MD
University of Rochester Medical Center|Golisano Children's Hospital at Strong
Birth Defects of the Urinary Tract and Genitals

Pedro T. Ramirez, MD
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Cancers of the Female Reproductive System

Anupama K. Rao, MD
Rush University Medical Center
Heart Tumors

Robert W. Rebar, MD
Western Michigan University Homer Stryker M.D. School of Medicine
Infertility

Wingfield E. Rehmus, MD, MPH
University of British Columbia|BC Children’s Hospital, Division of Dermatology
Bacterial Skin Infections

Sanjay G. Revankar, MD
Wayne State University School of Medicine
Fungal Infections

Douglas J. Rhee, MD
University Hospitals/Case Western Reserve University
Glaucoma

David Richards, MD
Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine|Department of Emergency Medicine, Denver Health Medical Center
Drowning

Melvin I. Roat, MD, FACS
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Wills Eye Hospital
Conjunctival and Scleral Disorders , Corneal Disorders

Beryl J. Rosenstein, MD
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Cystic Fibrosis

Laurence Z. Rubenstein, MD, MPH
University of Oklahoma College of Medicine|University of California, Los Angeles
Falls in Older People

Michael Rubin, MDCM
New York Presbyterian Hospital-Cornell Medical Center
Spinal Cord Disorders , Craniocervical Junction Disorders , Cranial Nerve Disorders , Peripheral Nerve and Related Disorders , Muscular Dystrophies and Related Disorders

Sean R. Rudnick, MD
Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Porphyrias

Thomas M. Ruenger, MD, PhD
Georg-August University of Göttingen, Germany|Lahey Hospital and Medical Center
Itching and Dermatitis

Atenodoro R. Ruiz, Jr., MD
The Medical City, Pasig City, Philippines
Malabsorption , Biology of the Digestive System

Daniel P. Runde, MD, MME
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics
Electrical and Lightning Injuries

J. Mark Ruscin, PharmD, FCCP, BCPS
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville School of Pharmacy
Aging and Drugs

Charles Sabatino, JD
American Bar Association
Legal and Ethical Issues

Birendra P. Sah, MD, FCCP
Upstate Medical University
Sarcoidosis

Gloria Salvo, MD
MD Anderson Cancer Center
Cancers of the Female Reproductive System

Vaishali Sanchorawala, MD
Boston Medical Center and University School of Medicine
Amyloidosis

Christopher Sanford, MD, MPH, DTM&H
University of Washington
Travel and Health

Ravindra Sarode, MD
The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Biology of Blood , Blood Transfusion

Clarence T. Sasaki, MD
Yale University School of Medicine
Mouth and Throat Disorders , Laryngeal Disorders

Margot L. Savoy, MD, MPH
Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University
Immunization

Bradley A. Schiff, MD
Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital of Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Mouth, Nose, and Throat Cancers

Steven Schmitt, MD
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University|Cleveland Clinic
Bone and Joint Infections

Roger I. Schreck, MD
Merck Manual
Financial Issues in Health Care , Health Care Coverage for Older People

Richard J. Schwab, MD
University of Pennsylvania, Division of Sleep Medicine
Sleep Disorders

Sanjay Sethi, MD
University at Buffalo SUNY
Abscess in the Lungs , Acute Bronchitis , Pneumonia

Udayan K. Shah, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/A.I. duPont Hospital for Children
Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders in Children

Laura Shane-McWhorter, PharmD
University of Utah College of Pharmacy
Dietary Supplements

Michael J. Shea, MD
Michigan Medicine at the University of Michigan
Biology of the Heart and Blood Vessels , Diagnosis of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders , Symptoms of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders

Patrick J. Shenot, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Disorders of Urination , Penile and Testicular Disorders

Stephen D. Silberstein, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Headaches

Michael J. Smith, MD, MSCE
Duke University
Vaccination of Children

David Spiegel, MD
Stanford University School of Medicine|Stanford University School of Medicine
Dissociative Disorders

Jason Stankiewicz, MD
University of Maryland Medical Center
Rehabilitation for Lung and Airway Disorders

Dan J. Stein, MD, PhD
University of Cape Town
Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders

David R. Steinberg, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
Hand Disorders

Jan J. Stokosa, CP
Stokosa Prosthetic Clinic|American Prosthetics Institute, Ltd
Limb Prosthetics

Kingman P. Strohl, MD
Case School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University|Louis Stokes Cleveland DVA Medical Center
Sleep Apnea

Tisha Suboc, MD
Rush University
Cardiomyopathy

Stephen Brian Sulkes, MD
Golisano Children’s Hospital at Strong, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Behavioral Problems in Children , Learning and Developmental Disorders

Rosalyn Sulyanto, DMD, MS
Harvard School of Dental Medicine and Boston Children's Hospital|Boston Children's Hospital
Biology of the Mouth and Teeth

Ranya N. Sweis, MD, MS
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Coronary Artery Disease

Carol Tamminga, MD
UT Southwestern Medical Dallas
Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

David Tanen, MD
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA|Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
Heat Disorders

Victor F. Tapson, MD
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center|Clinical Research for the Women’s Guild Lung Institute
Pulmonary Embolism

Koon K. Teo, MBBCh, PhD
McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Peripheral Arterial Disease

Mary Territo, MD
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
White Blood Cell Disorders

Brenda L. Tesini, MD
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry|Strong Memorial Hospital and Golisano Children's Hospital, University of Rochester Medical Center
Infections in Newborns , Viral Infections in Infants and Children , Enteroviruses , Pox Viruses , Respiratory Viruses

George Thanassoulis, MD, MSc
McGill University|McGill University Health Center
Atherosclerosis

The Manual's Editorial Staff,
Diagnosis of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders , Low Blood Pressure and Shock , High Blood Pressure , Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Heart Failure , Sports and the Heart , Abnormal Heart Rhythms , Venous Disorders , Endocarditis , Coronary Artery Disease , Heart Valve Disorders , Atherosclerosis , Cardiomyopathy , Lymphatic Disorders , Pericardial Disease , Biology of the Heart and Blood Vessels , Tumors of the Lungs , Pulmonary Embolism (PE) , Pneumonia , Respiratory Failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sarcoidosis , Acute Bronchitis , Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) , Sleep Apnea , Asthma , Diagnosis of Lung Disorders , Environmental Lung Diseases , Pleural and Mediastinal Disorders , Biology of the Lungs and Airways , Pulmonary Hypertension , Movement Disorders , Headaches , Cranial Nerve Disorders , Stroke (CVA) , Peripheral Nerve Disorders , Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Related Disorders , Sleep Disorders , Spinal Cord Disorders , Coma and Impaired Consciousness , Diagnosis of Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders , Tumors of the Nervous System , Meningitis , Dementia , Symptoms of Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders , Brain Infections , Seizure Disorders , Pain , Biology of the Nervous System , Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders , Eating Disorders , Schizophrenia , Personality Disorders , Suicidal Behavior and Self-Injury , Anxiety and Stress-Related Disorders , Mood Disorders , Drug Use and Abuse , Overview of Mental Health Care , Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) , Diagnosis of Digestive Disorders , Pancreatitis , Anal and Rectal Disorders , Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease , Gastroenteritis , Malabsorption , Esophageal and Swallowing Disorders , Tumors of the Digestive System , Gastrointestinal Emergencies , Diverticular Disease , Biology of the Digestive System , Fibrosis and Cirrhosis of the Liver , Manifestations of Liver Disease , Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders , Alcoholic Liver Disease , Tumors of the Liver , Hepatitis , Biology of the Liver and Gallbladder , Pituitary Gland Disorders , Electrolyte Balance , Thyroid Gland Disorders , Water Balance , Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Disorders of Blood Sugar Metabolism , Cholesterol Disorders , Adrenal Gland Disorders , Immunodeficiency Disorders , Allergic Reactions and Other Hypersensitivity Disorders , Biology of the Immune System , Overview of Viral Infections , Tuberculosis and Leprosy , Arboviruses, Arenaviruses, and Filoviruses , Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) , Bacteremia, Sepsis, and Septic Shock , Biology of Infectious Disease , Bacterial Infections: Anaerobic Bacteria , Immunization , Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection , Bacterial Infections: Gram-Positive Bacteria , Bacterial Infections: Spirochetes , Bacterial Infections: Gram-Negative Bacteria , Parasitic Infections: Trematodes (Flukes) , Parasitic Infections: Nematodes (Roundworms) , Parasitic Infections: Intestinal Protozoa and Microsporidia , Parasitic Infections: Cestodes (Tapeworms) , Parasitic Infections: Extraintestinal Protozoa , Enteroviruses , Respiratory Viruses , Fungal Infections , Herpesvirus Infections , Chromosomal and Genetic Abnormalities , Social Issues Affecting Children and Their Families , Neurologic Disorders in Children , Digestive Disorders in Children , Learning and Developmental Disorders , Behavioral Problems in Children , Hormonal Disorders in Children , Viral Infections in Infants and Children , Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection in Children , Problems in Adolescents , Respiratory Disorders in Infants and Children , Lung and Breathing Problems in Newborns , Bacterial Infections in Infants and Children , Cystic Fibrosis , Gastrointestinal (GI) and Liver Problems in Newborns , Miscellaneous Disorders in Infants and Young Children , Vaccination of Children , Mental Health Disorders in Children and Adolescents , Bone Disorders in Children , Birth Defects of the Brain and Spinal Cord , Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders in Children , Connective Tissue Disorders in Children , Eye Disorders in Children , General Problems in Newborns , Birth Defects of the Digestive Tract , Neurocutaneous Syndromes in Children , Birth Defects of the Heart , Childhood Cancers , Injuries to the Eye , Motion Sickness , Heat Disorders , Burns , Poisoning , Head Injuries , Sprains and Other Soft-Tissue Injuries , Cold Injuries , Fractures , Bites and Stings , Spinal Injuries , Eyelid and Tearing Disorders , Glaucoma , Conjunctival and Scleral Disorders , Retinal Disorders , Cataract , Symptoms of Eye Disorders , Corneal Disorders , Joint Disorders , Muscle, Bursa, and Tendon Disorders , Osteoporosis , Neck and Low Back Pain , Hand Disorders , Vasculitic Disorders , Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue , Foot Problems , Osteonecrosis , Gout , Symptoms of Musculoskeletal Disorders , Bone and Joint Infections , Paget Disease of Bone , Biology of Muscles and Bones , Cancers of the Kidney and Genitourinary Tract , Stones in the Urinary Tract , Kidney Failure , Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) , Disorders of Urination , Biology of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract , Blood Vessel Disorders of the Kidneys , Obstruction of the Urinary Tract , Disorders of Kidney Tubules , Sexual Dysfunction in Men , Penis and Testicle Disorders , Benign Prostate Disorders , Biology of the Male Reproductive System , Normal Labor and Delivery , Pregnancy Complicated by Disease , High-Risk Pregnancy , Fibroids , Menopause , Drug Use During Pregnancy , Infertility , Breast Disorders , Family Planning , Complications of Labor and Delivery , Postdelivery Period , Menstrual Disorders and Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding , Complications of Pregnancy , Endometriosis , Cancers of the Female Reproductive System , Symptoms of Gynecologic Disorders , Vaginal Infections and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease , Normal Pregnancy , Biology of the Female Reproductive System , Pressure Sores , Sunlight and Skin Damage , Bacterial Skin Infections , Noncancerous Skin Growths , Skin Cancers , Viral Skin Infections , Parasitic Skin Infections , Hypersensitivity and Inflammatory Skin Disorders , Hair Disorders , Itching and Dermatitis , Psoriasis and Scaling Disorders , Fungal Skin Infections , Mouth, Nose, and Throat Cancers , Mouth and Throat Disorders , Middle Ear Disorders , Outer Ear Disorders , Inner Ear Disorders , Hearing Loss and Deafness , Biology of the Ears, Nose, and Throat , Nose and Sinus Disorders , Common Imaging Tests , Tobacco Use , Chronic Fatigue Syndrome , Surgery , Overview of Cancer , Prevention and Treatment of Cancer , Tooth Disorders , Temporomandibular Disorders , Periodontal Diseases , Bleeding Due to Clotting Disorders , Plasma Cell Disorders , Myeloproliferative Disorders , Excessive Clotting , Leukemias , Blood Transfusion , Blood Clotting Process , Anemia , Lymphomas , Platelet Disorders , Biology of Blood , White Blood Cell Disorders , Falls , Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome , Weights and Measures , Common Medical Tests , Muscular Dystrophies and Related Disorders , Hereditary Metabolic Disorders , Acne and Related Disorders , Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis , Mass Casualty Weapons , Altitude Sickness

Danielle Tholey, MD
Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
Drugs and the Liver , Tumors of the Liver , Manifestations of Liver Disease

David R. Thomas, MD
St. Louis University School of Medicine
Nutritional Support

Andrea D. Thompson, MD, PhD
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Michigan
Symptoms of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders

Dylan Tierney, MD, MPH
Harvard Medical School|Brigham and Women's Hospital
Tuberculosis and Related Infections

Oren Traub, MD, PhD
Pacific Medical Centers
Medical Decision Making , The Science of Medicine and Clinical Trials , Hospital Care

James T. Ubertalli, DMD
Hingham, MA
Periodontal Diseases

Nimish Vakil, MD
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease

Philbert Yuan Van, MD
Oregon Health and Science University
Abdominal Injuries

Maria T. Vazquez-Pertejo, MD, FACP
Wellington Regional Medical Center
Diagnosis of Infectious Disease

M. Cristina Victorio, MD
Akron Children's Hospital|Northeast Ohio Medical University
Neurologic Disorders in Children , Neurocutaneous Syndromes in Children

Alexandra Villa-Forte, MD, MPH
Cleveland Clinic
Symptoms of Musculoskeletal Disorders , Diagnosis of Musculoskeletal Disorders , Biology of the Musculoskeletal System , Vasculitic Disorders , The Human Body

Michael N. Wajdowicz, DDS
USAF|Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Urgent Dental Problems

Aaron E. Walfish, MD
Mount Sinai Medical Center
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD)

B. Timothy Walsh, MD
College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University|New York State Psychiatric Institute
Eating Disorders

Andrew W. Walter, MS, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|A. I. duPont Hospital for Children
Blood Problems in Newborns

Michael R. Wasserman, MD
Los Angeles Jewish Home
Making the Most of Health Care , Nonspecific Symptoms

James C. Watson, MD
Mayo Clinic
Pain

Geoffrey A. Weinberg, MD
Golisano Children’s Hospital|University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Bacterial Infections in Infants and Children , Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection in Children

Thomas G. Weiser, MD, MPH
Stanford University School of Medicine|University of Edinburgh
Chest Injuries

Gregory L. Wells, MD
Idaho College of Osteopathic Medicine|Ada West Dermatology and Dermatopathology
Skin Cancers

Brian J. Werth, PharmD
University of Washington School of Pharmacy
Antibiotics

Kendrick Alan Whitney, DPM
Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine
Foot Problems

James E. Wilberger, MD
Drexel University College of Medicine|Allegheny General Hospital|Allegheny Health Network Medical Education Consortium|Allegheny Health Network
Spinal Injuries

Robert A. Wise, MD
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Adrienne Youdim, MD
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA|Cedars Sinai Medical Center
Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome , Overview of Nutrition

Thomas M. Yuill, PhD
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Arboviruses, Arenaviruses, Filoviruses

Zhiwei Zhang, MD
Loma Linda University|VA Loma Linda Healthcare System
Blood Vessel Disorders of the Kidneys

Mark Zimmerman, MD
Rhode Island Hospital|Brown University
Personality Disorders