Merck Manual

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Contributors

We gratefully acknowledge the expertise of the contributors to our current online version. The subject(s) that they are responsible for are listed after their affiliations.

Denise M. Aaron, MD
Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center
Noncancerous Skin Growths , Fungal Skin Infections

Denise M. Aaron, MD
Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center
Noncancerous Skin Growths , Fungal Skin Infections

Siddique A. Abbasi, MD, MSc
Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University|Providence VA Medical Center and the Cardiovascular Institute
Heart Tumors

Bola Adamolekun, MD
University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Seizure Disorders

Chris G. Adigun, MD
Dermatology & Laser Center of Chapel Hill
Nail Disorders

Chris G. Adigun, MD
Dermatology & Laser Center of Chapel Hill
Nail Disorders

Mehdi Afshar, MD
University of Toronto
Atherosclerosis

Thaniyyah S. Ahmad, MD, MPH
University of North Carolina
Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection

Roy D. Altman, MD
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
Joint Disorders , Paget Disease of Bone

Gerald L. Andriole, MD
Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine
Benign Prostate Disorders

Parswa Ansari, MD
Hofstra Northwell-Lenox Hill Hospital, New York
Anal and Rectal Disorders , Gastrointestinal Emergencies , Gastrointestinal Bleeding

Brian R. Apatoff, MD, PhD
Weill Cornell Medical College|New York Presbyterian Hospital
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Related Disorders

Noel A. Armenakas, MD
Weill Cornell Medical School|New York Presbyterian Hospital and Lenox Hill Hospital
Injury to the Urinary Tract and Genitals

Noel A. Armenakas, MD
Weill Cornell Medical School|New York Presbyterian Hospital and Lenox Hill Hospital
Injury to the Urinary Tract and Genitals

Guy P. Armstrong, MD
North Shore Hospital, Auckland|Waitemata Cardiology, Auckland Valvular Disorders
Heart Valve Disorders , Endocarditis

J. Malcolm O. Arnold, MD
University of Western Ontario|University Hospital, London Health Sciences Center
Cardiomyopathy , Heart Failure

Thomas Arnold, MD
Department of Emergency Medicine, LSU Health Sciences Center Shreveport|Lousiana Poison Center
Bites and Stings

Thomas Arnold, MD
Department of Emergency Medicine, LSU Health Sciences Center Shreveport|Lousiana Poison Center
Bites and Stings

Raul Artal-Mittelmark, MD
Saint Louis University School of Medicine
Normal Labor and Delivery , High-Risk Pregnancy , Normal Pregnancy

Raul Artal-Mittelmark, MD
Saint Louis University School of Medicine
High-Risk Pregnancy , Normal Pregnancy , Normal Labor and Delivery

Evelyn Attia, MD
Columbia University Medical Center, New York State Psychiatric Institute|Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital
Eating Disorders

Jeanne Marie Baffa, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/Afred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Birth Defects of the Heart

James Baird, CPO
Hanger Clinic
Limb Prosthetics

James Baird, CPO
Hanger Clinic
Limb Prosthetics

Debra Bakerjian, PhD, APRN
Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing, UC Davis
Providing Care to Older People

George L. Bakris, MD
University of Chicago School of Medicine
High Blood Pressure

Arcangela Lattari Balest, MD
University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine|Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC
Lung and Breathing Problems in Newborns

Raghav Bansal, MBBS
Ichan School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY
Pancreatitis , Bezoars and Foreign Bodies of the Digestive Tract

David H. Barad, MD, MS
Center for Human Reproduction
Symptoms of Gynecologic Disorders , Diagnosis of Gynecologic Disorders

Peggy P. Barco, OTD, OTR/L, BSW, SCDCM, CDRS, FAOTA
Washington University Medical School
The Older Driver

Peggy P. Barco, OTD, OTR/L, BSW, SCDCM, CDRS, FAOTA
Washington University Medical School
The Older Driver

Robert A. Barish, MD, MBA
University of Illinois at Chicago
Bites and Stings

Jennifer M. Barker, MD
Children's Hospital Colorado, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology
Polyglandular Deficiency Syndromes

Jennifer M. Barker, MD
Children's Hospital Colorado, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology
Polyglandular Deficiency Syndromes

John W. Barnhill, MD
Weill Cornell Medical College and New York Presbyterian Hospital
Anxiety and Stress-Related Disorders

Michael Bartel, MD
Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple University
Pancreatitis

John G. Bartlett, MD
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Pneumonia

Rosemary Basson, MD
University of British Columbia and Vancouver Hospital|UBC Sexual Medicine Program
Sexual Dysfunction in Women

Joel A. Baum, MD
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Diverticular Disease

Julia Benedetti, MD
Harvard Medical School|Tufts University School of Medicine
Biology of the Skin , Sunlight and Skin Damage

James R. Berenson, MD
Institute for Myeloma and Bone Cancer Research
Plasma Cell Disorders

James R. Berenson, MD
Institute for Myeloma and Bone Cancer Research
Plasma Cell Disorders

John L. Berk, MD
Amyloidosis Center, Boston University Medical Center
Amyloidosis

Barbara J. Berkman, DSW, PhD
Columbia University School of Social Work
Elder Abuse , Social Issues Affecting Older People

Barbara J. Berkman, DSW, PhD
Columbia University School of Social Work
Social Issues Affecting Older People , Elder Abuse

Richard W. Besdine, MD
Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University
Aging and Quality of Life , The Aging Body

Richard W. Besdine, MD
Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University
The Aging Body , Aging and Quality of Life

Rajeev Bhatia, MD
Phoenix Children's Hospital|Akron Children's Hospital
Respiratory Disorders in Infants and Children

Scott W. Biest, MD
Washington University School of Medicine
Fibroids

Joseph J. Biundo, MD
Tulane Medical Center
Muscle, Bursa, and Tendon Disorders

Donald W. Black, MD
University of Iowa, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine
Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance

Donald W. Black, MD
University of Iowa, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine
Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance

Karen Blackstone, MD
George Washington University|Washington DC Veterans Administration Medical Center
Death and Dying

Steven D. Blatt, MD
State University of New York, Upstate Medical University|State University of New York, Upstate Medical University
Social Issues Affecting Children and Their Families

Steven D. Blatt, MD
State University of New York, Upstate Medical University|State University of New York, Upstate Medical University
Social Issues Affecting Children and Their Families

Marcy B. Bolster, MD
Harvard Medical School|Massachusetts General Hospital
Osteoporosis

Jessica Bon Field, MD, MS
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
Rehabilitation for Lung and Airway Disorders

Herbert L. Bonkovsky, MD
Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Porphyrias

Herbert L. Bonkovsky, MD
Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Porphyrias

Ann S. Botash, MD
State University of New York, Upstate Medical University
Child Neglect and Abuse

Alfred A. Bove, MD, PhD
Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University
Diving and Compressed Air Injuries

Thomas G. Boyce, MD, MPH
University of North Carolina School of Medicine
Gastroenteritis

Simeon A. Boyadjiev Boyd, MD
University of California, Davis
Birth Defects of the Face, Bones, Joints, and Muscles

Christopher J. Brady, MD
Wilmer Eye Institute, Retina Division, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Symptoms of Eye Disorders

Evan M. Braunstein, MD, PhD
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Anemia

George R. Brown, MD
East Tennessee State University|University of North Texas
Sexuality and Sexual Disorders

Haywood L. Brown, MD
Duke University Medical Center
Normal Pregnancy , Normal Labor and Delivery

Christopher Bruno, MD
Drexel University College of Medicine
Antibiotics

Erika F. Brutsaert, MD
New York Medical College|Westchester Medical Center, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Disorders of Blood Sugar Metabolism

Robert G. Brzyski, MD, PhD
The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Biology of the Female Reproductive System

Larry M. Bush, MD, FACP
Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University|University of Miami-Miller School of Medicine
Overview of Bacteria, Bacterial Infections: Overview , Bacterial Infections: Anaerobic Bacteria , Bacterial Infections: Gram-Negative Bacteria , Meningococcal Infections , Bacterial Infections: Gram-Positive Bacteria , Bacterial Infections: Spirochetes , Biology of Infectious Disease

Jerrold T. Bushberg, PhD, DABMP
School of Medicine, University of California, Davis
Radiation Injury

Jerrold T. Bushberg, PhD, DABMP
School of Medicine, University of California, Davis|The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
Radiation Injury

Edward R. Cachay, MD, MAS
University of California, San Diego
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection

Andrew Calabria, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania|The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Hormonal Disorders in Children

Andrew Calabria, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania|The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Hormonal Disorders in Children

Danielle Campagne, MD
University of San Francisco - Fresno
Sprains and Other Soft-Tissue Injuries , Dislocations , Fractures

Danielle Campagne, MD
University of San Francisco - Fresno
Fractures , Dislocations , Sprains and Other Soft-Tissue Injuries

Caroline Carney , MD, MSc
Magellan Healthcare
Overview of Mental Health Care

David B. Carr, MD
Washington University School of Medicine
The Older Driver

David B. Carr, MD
Washington University School of Medicine
The Older Driver

Carla Carvalho, MD, MPH
Stanford University Hospital
Bacteremia, Sepsis, and Septic Shock

Thomas Cascino, MD, MSc
University of Michigan
Diagnosis of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders

Mary T. Caserta, MD
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry|Golisano Children’s Hospital at Strong, University of Rochester Medical Center
Viral Infections in Infants and Children

Frances E. Casey, MD, MPH
Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center
Family Planning

Bartolome R. Celli, MD
Tufts University|St. Elizabeth's Medical Center
Rehabilitation for Lung and Airway Disorders

Bruce A. Chabner, MD
Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center|Harvard Medical School
Prevention and Treatment of Cancer , Overview of Cancer

Walter W. Chan, MD, MPH
Harvard Medical School|Brigham and Women's Hospital
Diagnosis of Digestive Disorders

Ian M. Chapman, MBBS, PhD
University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital
Pituitary Gland Disorders

Ian M. Chapman, MBBS, PhD
University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital
Pituitary Gland Disorders

Julia F. Charles, MD, PhD
Harvard Medical School|Brigham and Women's Hospital
Paget Disease of Bone

Lois Choi-Kain, MD
Harvard Medical School|Gunderson Residence of McLean Hospital|McLean Borderline Personality Disorder Training Institute
Personality Disorders

Ji Y. Chong, MD
Weill Cornell Medical College|New York Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist Hospital
Stroke (CVA)

Paul H. Chung, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University
Diagnosis of Kidney and Urinary Tract Disorders

Alfred J. Cianflocco, MD, FAAFP
Cleveland Clinic
Low Back and Neck Pain

Jesse M. Civan, MD
Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
Fibrosis and Cirrhosis of the Liver

Paula J. Clayton, MD
University of Minnesota School of Medicine
Suicidal Behavior and Self-Injury , Suicidal Behavior and Self-Injury

Erin G. Clifton, PhD
Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan
Domestic Violence and Rape

Elizabeth L. Cobbs, MD
George Washington University|Washington DC Veterans Administration Medical Center
Death and Dying

William J. Cochran, MD
Geisinger Clinic|Temple University School of Medicine
Digestive Disorders in Children , Birth Defects of the Digestive Tract , Gastrointestinal (GI) and Liver Problems in Newborns

Alan S. Cohen, MD
Boston University School of Medicine|Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders
Amyloidosis

Robert B. Cohen, DMD
Kessler Medical Center
Lip and Tongue Disorders

Sidney Cohen, MD
Thomas Jefferson University
Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease

Kathryn Colby, MD, PhD
University of Chicago School of Medicine
Diagnosis of Eye Disorders , Cataract , Injuries to the Eye , Symptoms of Eye Disorders

Harold R. Collard, MD
University of California San Francisco
Interstitial Lung Diseases

Rafael Antonio Ching Companioni, MD
Digestive Diseases Center
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) , Diverticular Disease

Deborah M. Consolini, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Care of Newborns and Infants , Health Supervision of Well Children , Symptoms in Infants and Children

Başak Çoruh, MD
University of Washington
Bronchiectasis and Atelectasis

William Coryell, MD
Carver College of Medicine at University of Iowa
Mood Disorders

Jimena Cubillos, MD
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Birth Defects of the Urinary Tract and Genitals

Emmett T. Cunningham, Jr., MD, PhD, MPH
Stanford University|The Uveitis Service, California Pacific Medical Center and Clinic
Uveitis and Related Disorders

Patricia A. Daly, MD
University of Virginia
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

Patricia A. Daly, MD
University of Virginia
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

Daniel F. Danzl, MD
University of Louisville School of Medicine
Cold Injuries

Daniel F. Danzl, MD
University of Louisville School of Medicine
Cold Injuries

Shinjita Das, MD
Harvard Medical School|Massachusetts General Hospital
Psoriasis and Scaling Disorders , Sweating Disorders , Pigment Disorders

Michael H. Davidson, MD, FACC, FNLA
University of Chicago Medicine
Cholesterol Disorders

Norman L. Dean, MD
Chapel Hill|American College of Physicians
Drowning

Peter J. Delves, PhD
University College London, London, UK
Biology of the Immune System , Allergic Reactions and Other Hypersensitivity Disorders

Matt Demczko, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University|Division of Diagnostic Referral Services, Nemours/A.I. duPont Hospital for Children
Hereditary Metabolic Disorders

Ara DerMarderosian, PhD
University of the Sciences
Dietary Supplements

Rebecca Dezube, MD, MHS
Johns Hopkins University
Biology of the Lungs and Airways , Diagnosis of Lung Disorders , Symptoms of Lung Disorders

Deepinder K. Dhaliwal, MD, L.Ac
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine|UPMC Eye Center
Refractive Disorders

A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD
North Atlanta Dermatology
Bacterial Skin Infections

A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD
North Atlanta Dermatology
Bacterial Skin Infections

Michael C. DiMarino, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Esophageal and Swallowing Disorders , Diverticular Disease , Bezoars and Foreign Bodies of the Digestive Tract , Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease

Joel E. Dimsdale, MD
University of California, San Diego
Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

James G. H. Dinulos, MD
Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth|University of Connecticut
Viral Skin Infections , Parasitic Skin Infections

James G. H. Dinulos, MD
Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth|University of Connecticut
Parasitic Skin Infections , Viral Skin Infections

Caroline Carney Doebbeling, MD, MSc
Cetan Health Consultants LLC, Indianapolis, IN;MDwise, Inc., Indianapolis, IN
Overview of Mental Health Care

Karl Doghramji, MD
Jefferson Sleep Disorders Center, Thomas Jefferson University
Sleep Disorders

Coreen B. Domingo, DrPH
Baylor College of Medicine
Substance-Related Disorders

James D. Douketis, MD
McMaster University|St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton
Venous Disorders , Lymphatic Disorders , Iron Overload

Daniel A. Doyle, MD
Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Children's Hospital
Growth and Development

Antonette T. Dulay, MD
Main Line Health System|Axia Women’s Health
Complications of Pregnancy

Antonette T. Dulay, MD
Main Line Health System|Axia Women’s Health
Complications of Pregnancy

Jeffrey S. Dungan, MD
Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine
Detection of Genetic Disorders

Derrick A. Dupre, MD
Allegheny General Hospital|Drexel University College of Medicine
Head Injuries , Spinal Injuries

N. Lawrence Edwards, MD
Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine
Gout and Calcium Pyrophosphate Arthritis

Esther Eisenberg, MD
Vanderbilt University Medical Center|Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Endometriosis

Josephine Elia, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/A.I. duPont Hospital for Children
Mental Health Disorders in Children and Adolescents

Ashkan Emadi, MD, PhD
University of Maryland
Leukemias

Alberto Espay, MD
University of Cincinnati
Movement Disorders

B. Mark Evers, MD
Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky|University of Kentucky Department of Surgery
Carcinoid Tumors

Stephen J. Falchek, MD
Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children|Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University
Birth Defects of the Brain and Spinal Cord

Mark A. Farber, MD, FACS
University of North Carolina|University of North Carolina Aortic Network
Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection

Abimbola Farinde, PhD, PharmD
Columbia Southern University, Orange Beach, AL
Drug Dynamics

Christopher M. Fecarotta, MD
Phoenix Children’s Hospital
Eye Disorders in Children

Norah C. Feeny, PhD
Case Western Reserve University
Domestic Violence and Rape

James Fernandez, MD, PhD
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University|Louis Stokes VA Medical Center, Wade Park|Cleveland Clinic
Immunodeficiency Disorders

James Fernandez, MD, PhD
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University|Louis Stokes VA Medical Center, Wade Park|Cleveland Clinic
Immunodeficiency Disorders

Bradley D. Figler, MD
University of North Carolina
Diagnosis of Kidney and Urinary Tract Disorders

Bradley D. Figler, MD
University of North Carolina
Diagnosis of Kidney and Urinary Tract Disorders

Teodoro Ernesto Figueroa, MD
Nemours/A.I. duPont Nemours Hospital for Children|Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University
Incontinence in Children

Teodoro Ernesto Figueroa, MD
Nemours/A.I. duPont Nemours Hospital for Children|Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University
Incontinence in Children

David N. Finegold, MD
University of Pittsburgh
Genetics

Michael B. First, MD
Columbia University|New York State Psychiatric Institute
Overview of Mental Health Care

Steven D. Freedman, MD, PhD
Harvard Medical School|Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Pancreatitis

Marvin P. Fried, MD
Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital of Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Nose and Sinus Disorders , Symptoms of Nose and Throat Disorders

Marvin P. Fried, MD
Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital of Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Symptoms of Nose and Throat Disorders , Nose and Sinus Disorders

Lara A. Friel, MD, PhD
University of Texas Health Medical School at Houston, McGovern Medical School
Pregnancy Complicated by Disease

Enrica Fung, MD, MPH
Loma Linda University School of Medicine|VA Loma Linda Healthcare System
Cystic Kidney Disorders

Robert Peter Gale, MD, PhD
Imperial College London
Overview of Cancer , Prevention and Treatment of Cancer

Pierluigi Gambetti, MD
Case Western Reserve University
Prion Diseases

Pierluigi Gambetti, MD
Case Western Reserve University
Prion Diseases

Sunir J. Garg, MD, FACS
Thomas Jefferson University|The Retina Service of Wills Eye Hospital
Retinal Disorders

James Garrity, MD
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
Eyelid and Tearing Disorders , Biology of the Eyes , Eye Socket Disorders , Optic Nerve Disorders

Margery Gass, MD
International Menopause Society
Menopause

Brian K. Gehlbach, MD
University of Chicago
Respiratory Failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Frank Genese, DO
Wake Forest School of Medicine
Asthma

David M. Gershenson, MD
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Cancers of the Female Reproductive System

Kenneth A. Getz, MBA
Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development;The Center for Information and Study on Clinical Research Participation
The Science of Medicine and Clinical Trials

Elias A. Giraldo, MD, MS
California University of Science and Medicine School of Medicine
Stroke (CVA)

Mark T. Gladwin, MD
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine|Pittsburgh Heart, Lung, and Blood Vascular Medicine Institute
Pulmonary Hypertension

Mark T. Gladwin, MD
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine|Pittsburgh Heart, Lung, and Blood Vascular Medicine Institute
Pulmonary Hypertension

Stephen Gluckman, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania|Penn Global Medicine
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Stephen Gluckman, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania|Penn Global Medicine
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Oluwatosin Goje, MD, MSCR
Cleveland Clinic, Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University
Vaginal Infections and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Anne Carol Goldberg, MD
Washington University School of Medicine
Cholesterol Disorders

Anne Carol Goldberg, MD
Washington University School of Medicine
Cholesterol Disorders

Stephen E. Goldfinger, MD
Harvard Medical School|Massachusetts General Hospital
Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes

Steven A. Goldman, MD, PhD
University of Rochester Medical Center|University of Copenhagen Faculty of Medicine
Biology of the Nervous System , Tumors of the Nervous System

Mercedes E. Gonzalez, MD
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine |Florida International University Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine|Pediatric Dermatology of Miami
Itching and Dermatitis , Hypersensitivity and Inflammatory Skin Disorders

Hector A. Gonzalez-Usigli, MD
HE UMAE Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente|Movement Disorders Clinic
Movement Disorders

M. Jay Goodkind, MD
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine;Mercer Medical Center
Heart Tumors

Stuart B. Goodman, MD, PhD
Stanford University
Osteonecrosis

Carmen E. Gota, MD
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University|Orthopedic and Rheumatologic Institute, Center for Vasculitis Care and Research
Vasculitic Disorders

Jonathan Gotfried, MD
Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University
Diagnosis of Digestive Disorders , Symptoms of Digestive Disorders

Evan G. Graber, DO
Sydney Kimmel Medical College|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Growth and Development

Ayman Grada, MD, MS
Department of Dermatology, Boston University School of Medicine
Pressure Sores

Norton J. Greenberger, MD
Brigham and Women's Hospital|Brigham and Women's Hospital
Symptoms of Digestive Disorders

John E. Greenlee, MD
University of Utah School of Medicine
Meningitis , Brain Infections

John E. Greenlee, MD
University of Utah School of Medicine
Meningitis , Brain Infections

John J. Gregory, Jr., MD
Rutgers, New Jersey Medical School|Goryeb Children's Hospital, Atlantic Health
Childhood Cancers

John H. Greist, MD
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health|Madison Institute of Medicine
Anxiety and Stress-Related Disorders

Renee Gresh,
Nemours A.I. duPont Hospital for Children
Childhood Cancers

Ashley B. Grossman, MD
University of Oxford; Fellow, Green-Templeton College|Barts and the London School of Medicine|Royal Free Hospital, London
Adrenal Gland Disorders

Ashley B. Grossman, MD
University of Oxford; Fellow, Green-Templeton College|Barts and the London School of Medicine|Royal Free Hospital, London
Adrenal Gland Disorders

Ravindu Gunatilake, MD
Valley Perinatal Services
Drug Use During Pregnancy

John G. Gunderson, MD
Harvard Medical School|Borderline Personality Disorder Center, McLean Hospital
Personality Disorders

Jessica I. Gupta, MD
Michigan Medicine at the University of Michigan
Biology of the Heart and Blood Vessels

Jennifer Gurney, MD
Uniformed Services, University of Health Sciences, Bethesda
Surgery

Rula A. Hajj-ali, MD
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University|Cleveland Clinic
Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue

Jesse B. Hall, MD
University of Chicago School of Medicine
Respiratory Failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

John W. Hallett, Jr., MD
Medical University of South Carolina
Peripheral Arterial Disease , Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection

James Peter Adam Hamilton, MD
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Iron Overload

Margaret R. Hammerschlag, MD
State University of New York Downstate Medical Center
Chlamydial Infections and Mycoplasmas

Kevin C. Hazen, PhD
Duke University Health System
Diagnosis of Infectious Disease

L. Aimee Hechanova, MD
Texas Tech University|University Medical Center
Dialysis , Disorders of Kidney Tubules

L. Aimee Hechanova, MD
Texas Tech University|University Medical Center
Dialysis , Disorders of Kidney Tubules

R. Phillip Heine, MD
Duke University Medical Center
Symptoms During Pregnancy

R. Phillips Heine, MD
Duke University Medical Center
Symptoms During Pregnancy

Bernard J. Hennessy, DDS
Texas A&M University, College of Dentistry
Lip and Tongue Disorders , Symptoms of Oral and Dental Disorders , Tooth Disorders

Steven K. Herrine, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Drugs and the Liver , Manifestations of Liver Disease , Tumors of the Liver

Steven K. Herrine, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Tumors of the Liver , Drugs and the Liver , Manifestations of Liver Disease

Jerome M. Hershman, MD, MS
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA|West Los Angeles VA Medical Center
Thyroid Gland Disorders

Jerome M. Hershman, MD, MS
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA|West Los Angeles VA Medical Center
Thyroid Gland Disorders

Martin Hertl, MD, PhD
Rush University Medical Center
Transplantation

Martin Hertl, MD, PhD
Rush University Medical Center
Transplantation

Lyall A. J. Higginson, MD
University of Ottawa|University of Ottawa Heart Institute
Symptoms of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders

Irvin H. Hirsch, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University
Sexual Dysfunction in Men , Biology of the Male Reproductive System

Robert M. A. Hirschfeld, MD
Weill Cornell Medical College
Personality Disorders

Brian D. Hoit, MD
Case Western Reserve University|University Hospitals, Case Medical Center
Pericardial Disease and Myocarditis

Jonathan G. Howlett, MD
Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta|Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary
Heart Tumors , Coronary Artery Disease , Heart Failure

Juebin Huang, MD, PhD
Memory Impairment and Neurodegenerative Dementia (MIND) Center, University of Mississippi Medical Center
Delirium and Dementia , Brain Dysfunction

Wendy W. Huang, MD, PhD
Phoenix Children’s Hospital
Eye Disorders in Children

Wendy W. Huang, MD, PhD
Phoenix Children’s Hospital
Eye Disorders in Children

Victor F. Huckell, MD
University of British Columbia|Vancouver General Hospital
Endocarditis

Daniel A. Hussar, PhD
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, University of the Sciences, Philadelphia
Over-the-Counter Drugs , Factors Affecting Response to Drugs , Overview of Drugs

Michael C. Iannuzzi, MD, MBA
Northwell School of Medicine|Staten Island University Hospital
Sarcoidosis

Hakan Ilaslan, MD
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University|Cleveland Clinic
Common Imaging Tests , Bone and Joint Tumors

Talha H. Imam, MD
University of Riverside School of Medicine|Kaiser Permanente
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

Talha H. Imam, MD
University of Riverside School of Medicine|Kaiser Permanente
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

Whitney E. Jackson, MD
University of Colorado School of Medicine
Blood Vessel Disorders of the Liver

Harry S. Jacob, MD, DHC
University of Minnesota Medical School|HemOnc Today
Spleen Disorders

Jon A. Jacobson, MD
University of Michigan
Common Imaging Tests

Navin Jaipaul, MD, MHS
Loma Linda University School of Medicine|VA Loma Linda Healthcare System
Kidney Filtering Disorders , Biology of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract , Cystic Kidney Disorders

Arif Jivan, MD, PhD
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Coronary Artery Disease

Larry E. Johnson, MD, PhD
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences|Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System
Minerals , Vitamins

Larry E. Johnson, MD, PhD
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences|Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System
Vitamins , Minerals

Robert G. Johnson, MD
Saint Louis University School of Medicine
Surgery

Brian D. Johnston, Exercise Specialist
International Association of Resistance Training|Prescribed Exercise Clinics
Exercise and Fitness

Brian D. Johnston, Exercise Specialist
International Association of Resistance Training|Prescribed Exercise Clinics
Exercise and Fitness

Thomas V. Jones, MD, MPH
Pfizer
Medical Decision Making

Douglas E. Jorenby, PhD
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health|University of Wisconsin Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention
Tobacco Use

Nicholas Jospe, MD
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Hormonal Disorders in Children

Michael J. Joyce, MD
Cleveland Clinic Lerner School of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University
Bone and Joint Tumors

James O. Judge, MD
University of Connecticut School of Medicine|Optum Complex Population Management
Gait Disorders in Older People

Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
First Aid

Daniel B. Kaplan, PhD, LICSW
Adelphi University School of Social Work
Social Issues Affecting Older People , Elder Abuse

Daniel B. Kaplan, PhD, LICSW
Adelphi University School of Social Work
Elder Abuse , Social Issues Affecting Older People

Kenneth M. Kaye, MD
Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Herpesvirus Infections

David M. Kaylie, MS, MD
Duke University Medical Center
Biology of the Ears, Nose, and Throat , Symptoms of Ear Disorders

Robert L. Keith, MD
Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critial Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Eastern Colorado VA Healthcare System, University of Colorado
Tumors of the Lungs

Jonette E. Keri, MD, PhD
University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine|Miami VA Hospital
Acne and Related Disorders , Treatment of Skin Disorders

Bradley W. Kesser, MD
University of Virginia School of Medicine
Outer Ear Disorders

Leila M. Khazaeni, MD
Loma Linda University School of Medicine
Cataract , Diagnosis of Eye Disorders , Eye Disorders in Children

Charlie C. Kilpatrick, MD, MEd
Baylor College of Medicine|Ben Taub Hospital
Miscellaneous Gynecologic Abnormalities , Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP)

Preeti Kishore, MD
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Disorders of Blood Sugar Metabolism

Gary D. Klasser, DMD
Louisiana State University School of Dentistry
Temporomandibular Disorders

James P. Knochel, MD
University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas|Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas
Heat Disorders

Jennifer Knudtson, MD
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Biology of the Female Reproductive System

Mehmet Kocak, MD
Rush University Medical Center
Common Imaging Tests

Apostolos Kontzias, MD
Stony Brook University School of Medicine
Joint Disorders , Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes

Arthur E. Kopelman, MD
The Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University
General Problems in Newborns , Lung and Breathing Problems in Newborns

David N. Korones, MD
University of Rochester Medical Center
Childhood Cancers

Mary Ann Kosir, MD
Wayne State University School of Medicine|Karmanos Cancer Center
Breast Disorders

Thomas Kosten, MD
Baylor College of Medicine/MD Anderson Cancer Center
Substance-Related Disorders

Laura D Kramer, PhD
Wadsworth Center, NYSDOH|School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany
Overview of Viral Infections

Daniela Kroshinsky, MD, MPH
Harvard Medical School|Massachusetts General Hospital
Pressure Sores

Sonal Kumar, MD, MPH
Weill Cornell Medical College|New York Presbyterian Hospital
Hepatitis

David J. Kuter, MD, DPhil
Harvard Medical School|Massachusetts General Hospital
Platelet Disorders , Symptoms and Diagnosis of Blood Disorders , Bleeding Due to Abnormal Blood Vessels

Jules Y. T. Lam, MD, FRCP(C)
University of Montreal|Montreal Heart Institute
Atherosclerosis

Kara C. LaMattina, MD
Boston University School of Medicine
Uveitis and Related Disorders

Lewis Landsberg, MD
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

Lewis Landsberg, MD
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

Abigail R. Lara, MD
University of Colorado
Environmental Lung Diseases

Christopher J. LaRosa, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania|Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
Congenital Kidney Tubular Disorders

Jennie York Law, MD
University of Maryland
Leukemias

Jennifer Le, PharmD, MAS, BCPS-ID, FIDSA, FCCP, FCSHP
Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego
Administration and Kinetics of Drugs

Noah Lechtzin, MD, MHS
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Biology of the Lungs and Airways , Diagnosis of Lung Disorders , Symptoms of Lung Disorders

Noah Lechtzin, MD, MHS
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Symptoms of Lung Disorders

Joyce Lee, MD, MAS
University of Colorado Denver
Interstitial Lung Diseases , Autoimmune Disorders of the Lungs

Magda Lenartowicz, MD
Prevention

John P. Leonard, MD
Weill Cornell Medicine
Lymphomas

Michael C. Levin, MD
College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan|University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Symptoms of Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders , Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Related Disorders , Diagnosis of Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders

Wendy S. Levinbook, MD
Hartford Dermatology Associates
Hair Disorders

Wendy S. Levinbook, MD
Hartford Dermatology Associates
Hair Disorders

Andrea R. Levine, MD
University of Maryland School of Medicine
Rehabilitation for Lung and Airway Disorders , Pulmonary Hypertension

Matthew E. Levison, MD
Drexel University College of Medicine|Drexel University
Antibiotics

Sharon Levy, MD, MPH
Harvard Medical School|Boston Children's Hospital
Problems in Adolescents

Sharon Levy, MD, MPH
Harvard Medical School|Boston Children's Hospital
Problems in Adolescents

James L. Lewis, III, MD
Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincent’s Ascension Health, Birmingham
Acid-Base Balance , Electrolyte Balance , Water Balance

James L. Lewis, III, MD
Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincent’s Ascension Health, Birmingham
Electrolyte Balance , Water Balance , Acid-Base Balance

Alan E. Lichtin, MD
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine|Cleveland Clinic
Biology of Blood , Anemia , Anemia

Paul L. Liebert, MD
Tomah Memorial Hospital, Tomah, WI
Sports Injuries

Paul L. Liebert, MD
Tomah Memorial Hospital, Tomah, WI
Sports Injuries

Jane Liesveld, MD
James P. Wilmot Cancer Institute, University of Rochester Medical Center
Myeloproliferative Disorders

Jane Liesveld, MD
James P. Wilmot Cancer Institute, University of Rochester Medical Center
Myeloproliferative Disorders

Richard W. Light, MD
Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Pleural and Mediastinal Disorders

Christina C. Lindenmeyer, MD
Cleveland Clinic|Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University
Biology of the Liver and Gallbladder , Diagnosis of Liver, Gallbladder, and Biliary Disorders , Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders

Alexa Lindley, MD, MPH
Department of Family Medicine, University of Washington
Travel and Health

Sunny A. Linnebur, PharmD, BCPS, BCGP
University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus
Aging and Drugs

Sunny A. Linnebur, PharmD, BCPS, BCGP
University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Aging and Drugs

Gregory S. Liptak, MD, MPH
Upstate Medical University
Overview of Birth Defects

John Lissoway, MD
University of New Mexico|Presbyterian Hospital
Heat Disorders

James H. Liu, MD
UH Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University|Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
Endometriosis

Elliot M. Livstone, MD
Sarasota Memorial Hospital, Sarasota, FL
Tumors of the Digestive System

Phillip Low, MD
College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic|Mayo Clinic
Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

Phillip Low, MD
College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic|Mayo Clinic
Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

Andrew M. Luks, MD
University of Washington
Altitude Illness

Lawrence R. Lustig, MD
Columbia University Medical Center and New York Presbyterian Hospital
Inner Ear Disorders , Hearing Loss and Deafness

Kristle Lee Lynch, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania
Esophageal and Swallowing Disorders

Shalini S. Lynch, PharmD
University of California San Francisco School of Pharmacy
Factors Affecting Response to Drugs , Overview of Drugs , Over-the-Counter Drugs

Joanne Lynn, MD, MA, MS
Altarum Institute
Death and Dying

Robert J. MacNeal, MD
Maine Medical Center
Sunlight and Skin Damage , Biology of the Skin

Vinaya Maddukuri, MD
Carolinas Medical Center
Porphyrias

James Madsen, MD, MPH
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences|US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground South, MD
Mass-Casualty Weapons

James M. Madsen, MD, MPH
U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (USAMRICD)
Mass-Casualty Weapons

Paul M. Maggio, MD, MBA
Stanford University Medical Center
Bacteremia, Sepsis, and Septic Shock

Paul M. Maggio, MD, MBA
Stanford University Medical Center
Bacteremia, Sepsis, and Septic Shock

Kenneth Maiese, MD
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute|Rutgers University
Coma and Impaired Consciousness

Zubair Malik, MD
Temple University Hospital
Bezoars and Foreign Bodies of the Digestive Tract

Darren Malinoski, MD
Oregon Health & Science University|Portland VA Medical Center
Abdominal Injuries

Anna Malkina, MD
University of California, San Francisco
Kidney Failure

Scott Manaker, MD, PhD
University of Pennsylvania Health System
Low Blood Pressure and Shock

Gordon Mao, MD
Allegheny Health Network
Spinal Injuries , Head Injuries

J. Ryan Mark, MD
Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University
Cancers of the Kidney and Genitourinary Tract

John Markman, MD
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Pain

Melissa G. Marko, PhD
Nestle Nutrition
Dietary Supplements

Daphne E. Smith Marsh, PharmD, BC-ADM, CDE
College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago|Mile Square Health Center, University of Illinois at Chicago
Adverse Drug Reactions , Brand-Name and Generic Drugs

Peter Martin, MD
Weill Cornell Medicine
Lymphomas

Viraj A. Master, MD, PhD
Emory University School of Medicine
Cancers of the Kidney and Genitourinary Tract

John T. McBride, MD
Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacology, Rootstown|Akron Children’s Hospital
Respiratory Disorders in Infants and Children

Margaret C. McBride, MD
Northeast Ohio Medical University|Akron Children’s Hospital
Neurocutaneous Syndromes in Children , Neurologic Disorders in Children

Margaret C. McBride, MD
Northeast Ohio Medical University|Akron Children’s Hospital
Neurologic Disorders in Children , Neurocutaneous Syndromes in Children

J. Allen McCutchan, MD, MSc
University of California at San Diego
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) , Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection

Robert S. McKelvie, MD, PhD
Western University|St. Joseph's Health Care
Sports and the Heart

Karen McKoy, MD, MPH
Harvard Medical School|Lahey Clinic Dermatology
Itching and Dermatitis , Acne and Related Disorders , Treatment of Skin Disorders

Jessica E. McLaughlin, MD
University of Texas Health and Science Center at San Antonio
Biology of the Female Reproductive System

James I. McMillan, MD
Loma Linda University
Dialysis , Disorders of Kidney Tubules , Kidney Failure

S. Gene McNeeley, MD
Michigan State University, College of Osteopathic Medicine|Trinity Health
Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) , Miscellaneous Gynecologic Abnormalities

Jay Mehta, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania|The Children's Hospital of Pediatrics
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)

Noshir R. Mehta, DMD, MDS, MS
Department of Public Health and Community Service|Tufts University School of Dental Medicine
Temporomandibular Disorders

Sonia Mehta, MD
Vitreoretinal Diseases and Surgery Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Retinal Disorders

Matthew C. Miles, MD
Wake Forest School of Medicine
Asthma

Denise Millstine, MD
Mayo Clinic
Integrative, Complementary, and Alternative Medicine

Daniel R. Mishell, Jr., MD, MSc
Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California
Family Planning

L. Brent Mitchell, MD
Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, University of Calgary
Abnormal Heart Rhythms

Richard T. Miyamoto, MD, MS
Indiana University School of Medicine
Middle Ear Disorders

Richard T. Miyamoto, MD, MS
Indiana University School of Medicine
Middle Ear Disorders

Joel L. Moake, MD
Baylor College of Medicine|J. W. Cox Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering, Rice University
Blood Clotting Process , Bleeding Due to Clotting Disorders , Excessive Clotting

Paul K. Mohabir, MD
Stanford University School of Medicine
Surgery

Paul K. Mohabir, MD
Stanford University School of Medicine
Surgery

Nimish A. Mohile, MD
University of Rochester Medical Center
Tumors of the Nervous System

Julie S. Moldenhauer, MD
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia|The University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine
Complications of Labor and Delivery , Postdelivery Period

Stephanie M. Moleski, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Stephanie M. Moleski, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Peter J. Moley, MD
Hospital for Special Surgery|Weill Cornell Medical College
Low Back and Neck Pain

Richard E. Moon, MD
Duke University Medical Center
Diving and Compressed Air Injuries

John E. Morley, MB, BCh
Saint Louis University School of Medicine
Biology of the Endocrine System , Undernutrition

John E. Morley, MB, BCh
Saint Louis University School of Medicine
Biology of the Endocrine System , Undernutrition

Angela Cafiero Moroney, PharmD
AbbVie, Inc
Drug Dynamics

Alex Moroz, MD
New York University School of Medicine
Rehabilitation

Sheldon R. Morris, MD, MPH
University of California San Diego
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Sheldon R. Morris, MD, MPH
University of California San Diego
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Sam P. Most, MD
Stanford University School of Medicine
Facial Injuries

Sam P. Most, MD
Stanford University School of Medicine
Facial Injuries

Ann P. Murchison, MD, MPH
Wills Eye Emergency Department, Wills Eye Hospital|Thomas Jefferson University
Injuries to the Eye

David F. Murchison, DDS, MMS
The University of Texas at Dallas|Texas A & M University Baylor College of Dentistry
Symptoms of Oral and Dental Disorders , Urgent Dental Problems , Lip and Tongue Disorders

David G. Mutch, MD
Washington University School of Medicine
Fibroids

Sri Kamesh Narasimhan, PhD
University of Rochester
Pain

Edward A. Nardell, MD
Harvard Medical School|Brigham & Women's Hospital
Tuberculosis and Related Infections

Edward A. Nardell, MD
Harvard Medical School|Brigham & Women's Hospital
Tuberculosis and Related Infections

Linda P. Nelson, DMD, MScD
Harvard School of Dental Medicine|Children's Hospital
Biology of the Mouth and Teeth

Alana M. Nevares, MD
The University of Vermont Medical Center
Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue

John H. Newman, MD
Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
Pulmonary Embolism

Lee S. Newman, MD, MA
Colorado School of Public Health|Colorado University Anschutz
Environmental Lung Diseases

Minhhuyen Nguyen, MD
Fox Chase Cancer Center, Temple University
Tumors of the Digestive System

John K. Niparko, MD
Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California |Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California
Hearing Loss and Deafness

Alexander S. Niven, MD
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences|Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic
Bronchiectasis and Atelectasis

Steven Novella, MD
Yale University School of Medicine
Integrative, Complementary, and Alternative Medicine

Frank O'Brien, MD
Washington University in St. Louis
Kidney Filtering Disorders

Patrick G. O’Connor, MD, MPH
Yale University School of Medicine
Substance-Related Disorders

Adedamola A. Ogunniyi, MD
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center|David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
Motion Sickness

Adedamola A. Ogunniyi, MD
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center|David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
Motion Sickness

Gerald F. O’Malley, DO
Grand Strand Regional Medical Center|Sidney Kimmel School of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
Recreational Drugs and Intoxicants , Poisoning

Gerald F. O’Malley, DO
Grand Strand Regional Medical Center|Sidney Kimmel School of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
Poisoning , Recreational Drugs and Intoxicants

Rika O’Malley, MD
Albert Einstein Medical Center
Poisoning , Recreational Drugs and Intoxicants

Rika O’Malley, MD
Albert Einstein Medical Center
Recreational Drugs and Intoxicants , Poisoning

Nicholas T. Orfanidis, MD
Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
Alcoholic Liver Disease , Blood Vessel Disorders of the Liver , Diagnosis of Liver, Gallbladder, and Biliary Disorders

Victor E. Ortega, MD, PhD
Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research, Wake Forest School of Medicine
Asthma

James T. Pacala, MD, MS
University of Minnesota Medical School
Prevention

Elizabeth H. Page, MD
Harvard Medical School|Lahey Hospital and Medical Center
Biology of the Skin , Sunlight and Skin Damage

Robert M. Palmer, MD, MPH
University of Pittsburgh
Hospital Care

Elizabeth J. Palumbo, MD
The Pediatric Group, Fairfax, VA
Miscellaneous Disorders in Infants and Young Children

David M. Pariser, MD
Eastern Virginia Medical School
Sweating Disorders

Roy A. Patchell, MD, MD
Barrow Neurological Institute|University of Arizona - Phoenix
Tumors of the Nervous System

Bhakti K. Patel, MD
University of Chicago
Respiratory Failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Avinash S. Patil, MD
University of Arizona
Drug Use During Pregnancy

Richard D. Pearson, MD
University of Virginia School of Medicine
Parasitic Infections: Trematodes (Flukes) , Parasitic Infections: Cestodes (Tapeworms) , Parasitic Infections: An Overview , Parasitic Infections: Nematodes (Roundworms) , Parasitic Infections: Intestinal Protozoa and Microsporidia , Parasitic Infections: Extraintestinal Protozoa

Richard D. Pearson, MD
University of Virginia School of Medicine
Parasitic Infections: An Overview , Parasitic Infections: Cestodes (Tapeworms) , Parasitic Infections: Trematodes (Flukes) , Parasitic Infections: Intestinal Protozoa and Microsporidia , Parasitic Infections: Nematodes (Roundworms) , Parasitic Infections: Extraintestinal Protozoa

Alicia R. Pekarsky, MD
State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Upstate Golisano Children's Hospital
Child Neglect and Abuse

Lawrence L. Pelletier, Jr., MD
University of Kansas School of Medicine;Robert J. Dole VA Medical and Regional Office Center, Wichita;University of Kansas School of Medicine
Endocarditis

Emily J. Pennington, MD
Wake Forest School of Medicine
Asthma

Daniel M. Peraza, MD
Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth University
Blistering Diseases

Daniel M. Peraza, MD
Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth University
Blistering Diseases

Frank Pessler, MD, PhD
Braunschweig, Germany|Hannover, Germany
Connective Tissue Disorders in Children , Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) , Bone Disorders in Children

Stephen P. Peters, MD, PhD
Wake Forest School of Medicine|Wake Forest Health Sciences
Asthma

William A. Petri, Jr, MD, PhD
University of Virginia School of Medicine
Rickettsial and Related Infections

William A. Petri, Jr, MD, PhD
University of Virginia School of Medicine
Rickettsial and Related Infections

Katharine A. Phillips, MD
Weill Cornell Medical College|New York-Presbyterian Hospital|Alpert Medical School of Brown University
Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders

Katharine A. Phillips, MD
Weill Cornell Medical College|New York-Presbyterian Hospital|Alpert Medical School of Brown University
Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders

Tania J. Phillips, MD
Boston University School of Medicine
Pressure Sores

JoAnn V. Pinkerton, MD
University of Virginia Health System|The North American Menopause Society
Menstrual Disorders and Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding , Menopause

Brian Pomerantz, MD
Madigan Army Medical Center
Bronchiectasis and Atelectasis

Russell K. Portenoy, MD
Albert Einstein College of Medicine|Beth Israel Medical Center
Pain

Robert S. Porter, MD
The One-Page Manual of Health

Carol S. Portlock, MD
Weill Cornell University Medical College|Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
Lymphomas

Nina N. Powell-Hamilton, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Chromosome and Gene Abnormalities , Overview of Birth Defects

Josef T. Prchal, MD
University of Utah; George E. Wahlen VA Medical Center
Myeloproliferative Disorders

Glenn M. Preminger, MD
Duke University Medical Center|Duke Comprehensive Kidney Stone Center
Stones in the Urinary Tract , Obstruction of the Urinary Tract , Biology of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract

Craig R. Pringle, BSc, PhD
University of Warwick
Arboviruses, Arenaviruses, Filoviruses , Respiratory Viruses

Judith J. Prochaska, MD
Department of Medicine, Stanford University
Tobacco Use

Levi D. Procter, MD
Virginia Commonwealth University
Low Blood Pressure and Shock

Christopher P. Raab, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Miscellaneous Disorders in Infants and Young Children

Ronald Rabinowitz, MD
University of Rochester Medical Center|Golisano Children's Hospital at Strong
Birth Defects of the Urinary Tract and Genitals

Pedro T. Ramirez, MD
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Cancers of the Female Reproductive System

Pedro T. Ramirez, MD
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Cancers of the Female Reproductive System

Anupama K. Rao, MD
Rush University Medical Center
Heart Tumors

Patrick Reagan, MD
University of Rochester Medical Center
Myeloproliferative Disorders

Robert W. Rebar, MD
Western Michigan University Homer Stryker M.D. School of Medicine
Infertility

Wingfield E. Rehmus, MD, MPH
University of British Columbia|BC Children’s Hospital, Division of Dermatology
Nail Disorders , Hypersensitivity and Inflammatory Skin Disorders

Barbara Resnick, PhD, CRNP
University of Maryland School of Nursing
Providing Care to Older People

Sanjay G. Revankar, MD
Wayne State University School of Medicine
Fungal Infections

Douglas J. Rhee, MD
University Hospitals/Case Western Reserve University
Glaucoma

Douglas J. Rhee, MD
University Hospitals/Case Western Reserve University
Glaucoma

David Richards, MD
Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine|Department of Emergency Medicine, Denver Health Medical Center
Drowning

Candido E. Rivera, MD
Mayo Clinic
Iron Overload

Melvin I. Roat, MD, FACS
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Wills Eye Hospital
Corneal Disorders , Conjunctival and Scleral Disorders

Beryl J. Rosenstein, MD
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Cystic Fibrosis

Steven Rosenzweig, MD
Drexel University College of Medicine
Integrative, Complementary, and Alternative Medicine

Laurence Z. Rubenstein, MD, MPH
University of Oklahoma College of Medicine|University of California, Los Angeles
Falls

Laurence Z. Rubenstein, MD, MPH
University of Oklahoma College of Medicine|University of California, Los Angeles
Falls

Fred H. Rubin, MD
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine;University of Pittsburgh Medical Center-Shadyside
Immunization

Michael Rubin, MDCM
Weill Cornell Medical College|New York Presbyterian Hospital-Cornell Medical Center
Cranial Nerve Disorders , Muscular Dystrophies and Related Disorders , Peripheral Nerve Disorders , Spinal Cord Disorders , Craniocervical Junction Disorders

Sean R. Rudnick, MD
Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Porphyrias

Atenodoro R. Ruiz, Jr., MD
The Medical City, Pasig City, Metro-Manila, Philippines
Biology of the Digestive System , Malabsorption

Daniel P. Runde, MD, MME
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics
Electrical and Lightning Injuries

Daniel P. Runde, MD, MME
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics
Electrical and Lightning Injuries

J. Mark Ruscin, PharmD, FCCP, BCPS
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville School of Pharmacy
Aging and Drugs

J. Mark Ruscin, PharmD, FCCP, BCPS
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville School of Pharmacy
Aging and Drugs

Paul S. Russell, MD
Harvard Medical School|Massachusetts General Hospital
Transplantation

Anna E. Rutherford, MD, MPH
Harvard Medical School|Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Hepatitis

Lawrence M. Ryan, MD
Medical College of Wisconsin
Gout and Calcium Pyrophosphate Arthritis

Michael E. Rytting, MD
Department of Leukemia, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center|Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer
Leukemias

Charles Sabatino, JD
American Bar Association
Legal and Ethical Issues

David B. Sachar, MD
Mount Sinai School of Medicine|The Mount Sinai Hospital
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD)

Birendra P. Sah, MD
Upstate Medical University
Sarcoidosis

Gloria Salvo, MD
MD Anderson Cancer Center
Cancers of the Female Reproductive System

Vaishali Sanchorawala, MD
Boston Medical Center and University School of Medicine
Amyloidosis

Lee M. Sanders, MD, MPH
Stanford University
Hereditary Metabolic Disorders

Christopher Sanford, MD, MPH, DTM&H
University of Washington
Travel and Health

Christopher Sanford, MD, MPH, DTM&H
University of Washington
Travel and Health

Jerome Santoro, MD
Jefferson Medical College|Lankenau Medical Center
Immunization

Ravindra Sarode, MD
The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Blood Transfusion , Biology of Blood

Ravindra Sarode, MD
The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Blood Transfusion , Biology of Blood

Clarence T. Sasaki, MD
Yale University School of Medicine
Mouth and Throat Disorders , Laryngeal Disorders

Margot L. Savoy, MD, MPH
Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University
Immunization

Erik Schaffer, CP
A Step Ahead Prosthetics, Hicksville, NY
Limb Prosthetics

Peter C. Schalock, MD
Harvard Medical School|Massachusetts General Hospital
Hypersensitivity and Inflammatory Skin Disorders , Psoriasis and Scaling Disorders , Pigment Disorders

Bradley A. Schiff, MD
Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital of Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Mouth, Nose, and Throat Cancers

Hans P. Schlecht, MD, MSc
Drexel University College of Medicine
Antibiotics

Steven Schmitt, MD
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University|Cleveland Clinic
Bone and Joint Infections

Roger I. Schreck, MD
Health Care Coverage for Older People , Financial Issues in Health Care

S. Charles Schulz, MD
University of Minnesota Medical School|Prairie Care Medical Group
Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

Richard J. Schwab, MD
University of Pennsylvania, Division of Sleep Medicine
Sleep Disorders

Marvin I. Schwarz, MD
University of Colorado Denver
Autoimmune Disorders of the Lungs

Laura Sech, MD
University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine
Family Planning

Sanjay Sethi, MD
University at Buffalo SUNY
Abscess in the Lungs , Acute Bronchitis , Pneumonia

Anuja P. Shah, MD
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA|Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
Symptoms of Kidney and Urinary Tract Disorders

Sanjiv J. Shah, MD
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Heart Failure

Udayan K. Shah, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|Nemours/A.I. duPont Hospital for Children
Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders in Children

Laura Shane-McWhorter, PharmD
University of Utah College of Pharmacy
Dietary Supplements

Michael J. Shea, MD
Michigan Medicine at the University of Michigan
Biology of the Heart and Blood Vessels , Diagnosis of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders , Symptoms of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders

Patrick J. Shenot, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Disorders of Urination , Penile and Testicular Disorders

David D. Sherry, MD
University of Pennsylvania|The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Connective Tissue Disorders in Children , Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) , Bone Disorders in Children

Daryl Shorter, MD
Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center|Baylor College of Medicine
Substance-Related Disorders

Ali A. Siddiqui, MD
Thomas Jefferson University
Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders , Biology of the Liver and Gallbladder

Stephen D. Silberstein, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Headaches

Harold M. Silverman, PharmD
The Pill Book
Brand-Name and Generic Drugs

Emily Silverstein, MD
University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine
Family Planning

Daphne Simeon, MD
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Dissociative Disorders

Andrew Skodol, MD
University of Arizona College of Medicine
Personality Disorders

Michael J. Smith, MD, MSCE
Duke University
Vaccination of Children , Vaccination of Children

Michael J. Smith, MD, MSCE
Duke University
Vaccination of Children

Jack D. Sobel, MD
Wayne State University School of Medicine
Fungal Infections

David E. Soper, MD
Medical University of South Carolina
Vaginal Infections and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

David Spiegel, MD
Stanford University School of Medicine|Stanford University School of Medicine
Dissociative Disorders

Thomas D. Stamos, MD
University of Illinois at Chicago
Cardiomyopathy

Jason Stankiewicz, MD
University of Maryland Medical Center
Rehabilitation for Lung and Airway Disorders

Robert L. Stavis, PhD, MD
General Problems in Newborns

Dan J. Stein, MD, PhD
University of Cape Town
Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders

David R. Steinberg, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
Hand Disorders

Marvin E. Steinberg, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
Osteonecrosis

Jan J. Stokosa, CP
Stokosa Prosthetic Clinic|American Prosthetics Institute, Ltd
Limb Prosthetics

Lauren Strazzula, MD
Massachusetts General Hospital
Pressure Sores

Kingman P. Strohl, MD
Case School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University|UH Cleveland Medical Center
Sleep Apnea

Kingman P. Strohl, MD
Case School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University|Louis Stokes Cleveland DVA Medical Center
Sleep Apnea

Tisha Suboc, MD
Rush University
Cardiomyopathy

Alan M. Sugar, MD
Boston University School of Medicine|Cape Cod Healthcare
Fungal Infections

Stephen Brian Sulkes, MD
Golisano Children’s Hospital at Strong, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Behavioral Problems in Children , Learning and Developmental Disorders

Rosalyn Sulyanto, DMD, MS
Harvard School of Dental Medicine and Boston Children's Hospital
Biology of the Mouth and Teeth

Rosalyn Sulyanto, DMD, MS
Harvard School of Dental Medicine and Boston Children's Hospital
Biology of the Mouth and Teeth

William D. Surkis, MD
Jefferson Medical College|Lankenau Medical Center
Immunization

Geeta K. Swamy, MD
Duke University Medical Center
Symptoms During Pregnancy

Ranya N. Sweis, MD, MS
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Coronary Artery Disease

Moira Szilagyi, MD, PhD
University of Rochester;Monroe County Health Department
Social Issues Affecting Children and Their Families

Carol Tamminga, MD
UT Southwestern Medical Dallas
Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

David Tanen, MD
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA|Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
Heat Disorders

Victor F. Tapson, MD
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center|Clinical Research for the Women’s Guild Lung Institute
Pulmonary Embolism

Joan B. Tarloff, PhD
University of the Sciences in Philadelphia
Adverse Drug Reactions

Joan B. Tarloff, PhD
University of the Sciences in Philadelphia
Adverse Drug Reactions

Koon K. Teo, MBBCh, PhD
McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Peripheral Arterial Disease

Mary Territo, MD
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
White Blood Cell Disorders

Mary Territo, MD
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
White Blood Cell Disorders

Brenda L. Tesini, MD
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry|Strong Memorial Hospital and Golisano Children's Hospital, University of Rochester Medical Center
Viral Infections in Infants and Children , Pox Viruses , Enteroviruses , Respiratory Viruses , Infections in Newborns

George Thanassoulis, MD, MSc
McGill University|McGill University Health Center
Atherosclerosis

The Manual's Editorial Staff,
White Blood Cell Disorders , Biology of the Digestive System , Pain , Lymphatic Disorders , Immunodeficiency Disorders , Bone and Joint Infections , Connective Tissue Disorders in Children , Pleural and Mediastinal Disorders , Platelet Disorders , Paget Disease of Bone , Eye Disorders in Children , Bacterial Infections: Gram-Positive Bacteria , Bacterial Infections: Spirochetes , Bacterial Infections: Gram-Negative Bacteria , Parasitic Infections: Trematodes (Flukes) , Parasitic Infections: Nematodes (Roundworms) , Parasitic Infections: Intestinal Protozoa and Microsporidia , Parasitic Infections: Cestodes (Tapeworms) , Parasitic Infections: Extraintestinal Protozoa , Pericardial Disease , Tumors of the Nervous System , Pituitary Gland Disorders , Osteonecrosis , Hypersensitivity and Inflammatory Skin Disorders , Heart Valve Disorders , Hearing Loss and Deafness , Coma and Impaired Consciousness , Birth Defects of the Brain and Spinal Cord , Environmental Lung Diseases , Biology of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract , Bleeding Due to Clotting Disorders , Sprains and Other Soft-Tissue Injuries , Lung and Breathing Problems in Newborns , Sarcoidosis , Water Balance , Vasculitic Disorders , Plasma Cell Disorders , Myeloproliferative Disorders , Gastrointestinal (GI) and Liver Problems in Newborns , Foot Problems , Excessive Clotting , Diagnosis of Digestive Disorders , Endocarditis , Mental Health Disorders in Children and Adolescents , Fungal Skin Infections , Tuberculosis and Leprosy , Personality Disorders , Normal Labor and Delivery , Cancers of the Kidney and Genitourinary Tract , Behavioral Problems in Children , Adrenal Gland Disorders , Cold Injuries , Symptoms of Musculoskeletal Disorders , Osteoporosis , Neurologic Disorders in Children , Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders in Children , Bone Disorders in Children , Learning and Developmental Disorders , Retinal Disorders , Psoriasis and Scaling Disorders , Noncancerous Skin Growths , Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Disorders of Blood Sugar Metabolism , Tumors of the Liver , Manifestations of Liver Disease , Hepatitis , Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders , Delirium and Dementia , Mouth and Throat Disorders , Tumors of the Lungs , Hair Disorders , Fractures , Postdelivery Period , Normal Pregnancy , Blood Clotting Process , Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders , Brain Infections , Diagnosis of Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders , Spinal Cord Disorders , Respiratory Failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Muscle, Bursa, and Tendon Disorders , Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue , Thyroid Gland Disorders , Malabsorption , Peripheral Nerve Disorders , Middle Ear Disorders , Abnormal Heart Rhythms , Cardiomyopathy , Bites and Stings , Symptoms of Eye Disorders , Glaucoma , Cataract , Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) , Allergic Reactions and Other Hypersensitivity Disorders , Electrolyte Balance , Fibrosis and Cirrhosis of the Liver , Alcoholic Liver Disease , Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) , Eating Disorders , Cranial Nerve Disorders , Sleep Apnea , Acute Bronchitis , Heart Failure , Diagnosis of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders , Pregnancy Complicated by Disease , Penis and Testicle Disorders , Leukemias , Neck and Low Back Pain , Viral Infections in Infants and Children , Digestive Disorders in Children , Arboviruses, Arenaviruses, and Filoviruses , Biology of Infectious Disease , Biology of the Immune System , Bacterial Skin Infections , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) , Gastrointestinal Emergencies , Diverticular Disease , Anal and Rectal Disorders , Schizophrenia , Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Related Disorders , Meningitis , Inner Ear Disorders , Peripheral Arterial Disease , High Blood Pressure , Blood Transfusion , Injuries to the Eye , Miscellaneous Disorders in Infants and Young Children , Chromosomal and Genetic Abnormalities , Eyelid and Tearing Disorders , Viral Skin Infections , Sunlight and Skin Damage , Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease , Low Blood Pressure and Shock , Joint Disorders , Tooth Disorders , Overview of Viral Infections , Pancreatitis , Outer Ear Disorders , Infertility , Heat Disorders , Problems in Adolescents , Conjunctival and Scleral Disorders , Parasitic Skin Infections , Sleep Disorders , Mouth, Nose, and Throat Cancers , Sports and the Heart , Common Medical Tests , Weights and Measures , Gout , Gastroenteritis , Esophageal and Swallowing Disorders , Symptoms of Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders , Venous Disorders , Coronary Artery Disease , Atherosclerosis , Hormonal Disorders in Children , Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection in Children , Menstrual Disorders and Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding , Bacterial Infections in Infants and Children , Bacteremia, Sepsis, and Septic Shock , Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome , Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) , Complications of Labor and Delivery , Hand Disorders , Poisoning , Cystic Fibrosis , Temporomandibular Disorders , Stroke (CVA) , Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection , Falls , Chronic Fatigue Syndrome , Cancers of the Female Reproductive System , Breast Disorders , Sexual Dysfunction in Men , Lymphomas , Kidney Failure , Head Injuries , Respiratory Disorders in Infants and Children , Social Issues Affecting Children and Their Families , Periodontal Diseases , Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection , Pressure Sores , Mood Disorders , Anxiety and Stress-Related Disorders , Seizure Disorders , Movement Disorders , Prevention and Treatment of Cancer , Overview of Cancer , Fibroids , Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) , Motion Sickness , Burns , Immunization , Bacterial Infections: Anaerobic Bacteria , Skin Cancers , Itching and Dermatitis , Cholesterol Disorders , Headaches , Pulmonary Embolism (PE) , Pneumonia , Asthma , Tobacco Use , Common Imaging Tests , Complications of Pregnancy , Vaginal Infections and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease , Symptoms of Gynecologic Disorders , Menopause , High-Risk Pregnancy , Family Planning , Endometriosis , Drug Use During Pregnancy , Benign Prostate Disorders , Stones in the Urinary Tract , Pronunciations , Anatomical Drawings , Vaccination of Children , Suicidal Behavior and Self-Injury , Disorders of Urination , Tumors of the Digestive System , Drug Use and Abuse , Diagnosis of Lung Disorders , Blood Vessel Disorders of the Kidneys , General Problems in Newborns , Spinal Injuries , Enteroviruses , Respiratory Viruses , Herpesvirus Infections , Surgery , Obstruction of the Urinary Tract , Fungal Infections , Disorders of Kidney Tubules , Birth Defects of the Digestive Tract , Biology of the Heart and Blood Vessels , Biology of Blood , Biology of Muscles and Bones , Neurocutaneous Syndromes in Children , Biology of the Lungs and Airways , Biology of the Liver and Gallbladder , Biology of the Female Reproductive System , Overview of Mental Health Care , Birth Defects of the Heart , Biology of the Nervous System , Biology of the Male Reproductive System , Corneal Disorders , Biology of the Ears, Nose, and Throat , Pulmonary Hypertension

The Manual's Editorial Staff,
Vaccination of Children , Diagnosis of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders , Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) , Heart Failure , Eating Disorders , Fibrosis and Cirrhosis of the Liver , Glaucoma , Electrolyte Balance , Cranial Nerve Disorders , Sleep Apnea , Allergic Reactions and Other Hypersensitivity Disorders , Bites and Stings , Suicidal Behavior and Self-Injury , Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) , Cataract , Symptoms of Eye Disorders , Acute Bronchitis , Alcoholic Liver Disease , High-Risk Pregnancy , Neurologic Disorders in Children , Menopause , Tumors of the Liver , Learning and Developmental Disorders , Family Planning , Common Imaging Tests , Tumors of the Lungs , Pronunciations , Hepatitis , Anatomical Drawings , Tobacco Use , Retinal Disorders , Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders , Stones in the Urinary Tract , Weights and Measures , Symptoms of Gynecologic Disorders , Osteoporosis , Symptoms of Musculoskeletal Disorders , Complications of Pregnancy , Endometriosis , Common Medical Tests , Drug Use During Pregnancy , Benign Prostate Disorders , Mouth and Throat Disorders , Manifestations of Liver Disease , Noncancerous Skin Growths , Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Disorders of Blood Sugar Metabolism , Bone Disorders in Children , Delirium and Dementia , Vaginal Infections and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease , Psoriasis and Scaling Disorders , Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders in Children , Fibroids , Itching and Dermatitis , Pulmonary Embolism (PE) , Cholesterol Disorders , Overview of Cancer , Headaches , Pneumonia , Motion Sickness , Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) , Immunization , Prevention and Treatment of Cancer , Burns , Asthma , Bacterial Infections: Anaerobic Bacteria , Skin Cancers , Complications of Labor and Delivery , Stroke (CVA) , Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection , Hand Disorders , Temporomandibular Disorders , Poisoning , Cystic Fibrosis , Social Issues Affecting Children and Their Families , Pressure Sores , Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection , Sexual Dysfunction in Men , Breast Disorders , Mood Disorders , Kidney Failure , Seizure Disorders , Movement Disorders , Falls , Lymphomas , Respiratory Disorders in Infants and Children , Cancers of the Female Reproductive System , Anxiety and Stress-Related Disorders , Chronic Fatigue Syndrome , Head Injuries , Periodontal Diseases , Gout , Symptoms of Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders , Coronary Artery Disease , Atherosclerosis , Venous Disorders , Esophageal and Swallowing Disorders , Gastroenteritis , Hormonal Disorders in Children , Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection in Children , Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome , Menstrual Disorders and Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding , Bacteremia, Sepsis, and Septic Shock , Bacterial Infections in Infants and Children , Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) , Biology of Infectious Disease , Biology of the Immune System , Low Blood Pressure and Shock , Eyelid and Tearing Disorders , Sunlight and Skin Damage , Injuries to the Eye , Chromosomal and Genetic Abnormalities , Blood Transfusion , Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease , Miscellaneous Disorders in Infants and Young Children , Viral Skin Infections , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) , Digestive Disorders in Children , High Blood Pressure , Bacterial Skin Infections , Inner Ear Disorders , Anal and Rectal Disorders , Arboviruses, Arenaviruses, and Filoviruses , Viral Infections in Infants and Children , Schizophrenia , Penis and Testicle Disorders , Leukemias , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Gastrointestinal Emergencies , Meningitis , Neck and Low Back Pain , Diverticular Disease , Pregnancy Complicated by Disease , Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Related Disorders , Outer Ear Disorders , Joint Disorders , Overview of Viral Infections , Pancreatitis , Tooth Disorders , Parasitic Skin Infections , Infertility , Conjunctival and Scleral Disorders , Sports and the Heart , Mouth, Nose, and Throat Cancers , Heat Disorders , Problems in Adolescents , Sleep Disorders , Bleeding Due to Clotting Disorders , Plasma Cell Disorders , Excessive Clotting , Diagnosis of Digestive Disorders , Myeloproliferative Disorders , Water Balance , Gastrointestinal (GI) and Liver Problems in Newborns , Foot Problems , Vasculitic Disorders , Muscle, Bursa, and Tendon Disorders , Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue , Malabsorption , Thyroid Gland Disorders , Abnormal Heart Rhythms , Peripheral Nerve Disorders , Middle Ear Disorders , Cardiomyopathy , Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders , Brain Infections , Spinal Cord Disorders , Respiratory Failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Diagnosis of Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders , Postdelivery Period , Normal Pregnancy , Blood Clotting Process , Normal Labor and Delivery , Behavioral Problems in Children , Personality Disorders , Cancers of the Kidney and Genitourinary Tract , Adrenal Gland Disorders , Tuberculosis and Leprosy , Fungal Skin Infections , Mental Health Disorders in Children and Adolescents , Endocarditis , Sprains and Other Soft-Tissue Injuries , Lung and Breathing Problems in Newborns , Sarcoidosis , Cold Injuries , Fractures , Hair Disorders , Osteonecrosis , Hearing Loss and Deafness , Heart Valve Disorders , Hypersensitivity and Inflammatory Skin Disorders , Coma and Impaired Consciousness , Birth Defects of the Brain and Spinal Cord , Pituitary Gland Disorders , Tumors of the Nervous System , Drug Use and Abuse , Diagnosis of Lung Disorders , Tumors of the Digestive System , Disorders of Urination , Biology of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract , Environmental Lung Diseases , Connective Tissue Disorders in Children , Bone and Joint Infections , Pleural and Mediastinal Disorders , Lymphatic Disorders , Immunodeficiency Disorders , White Blood Cell Disorders , Biology of the Digestive System , Pain

Danielle Tholey, MD
Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
Drugs and the Liver , Manifestations of Liver Disease , Tumors of the Liver

David R. Thomas, MD
St. Louis University School of Medicine
Nutritional Support

Andrea D. Thompson, MD, PhD
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Michigan
Symptoms of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders

Elizabeth Chabner Thompson, MD, MPH
BFFL Co
Prevention and Treatment of Cancer , Overview of Cancer

Dylan Tierney, MD, MPH
Harvard Medical School|Brigham and Women's Hospital
Tuberculosis and Related Infections

Dylan Tierney, MD, MPH
Harvard Medical School|Brigham and Women's Hospital
Tuberculosis and Related Infections

Oren Traub, MD, PhD
Pacific Medical Centers
The Science of Medicine and Clinical Trials , Hospital Care , Medical Decision Making , Low Blood Pressure and Shock

Amal Trivedi, MD, MPH
Brown University
Health Care Coverage for Older People , Financial Issues in Health Care

Anne S. Tsao, MD
University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center
Tumors of the Lungs

Debara L. Tucci, MD, MS, MBA
Duke University Medical Center
Biology of the Ears, Nose, and Throat , Symptoms of Ear Disorders

Allan R. Tunkel, MD, PhD
Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University
Biology of Infectious Disease

James T. Ubertalli, DMD
Hingham, MA
Periodontal Diseases , Tooth Disorders

Nimish Vakil, MD
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease

Philbert Yuan Van, MD
Oregon Health and Science University
Abdominal Injuries

Maria T. Vazquez-Pertejo, MD
Wellington Regional Medical Center
Diagnosis of Infectious Disease

M. Cristina Victorio, MD
Northeast Ohio Medical University|Akron Children's Hospital
Neurologic Disorders in Children , Neurocutaneous Syndromes in Children

Alexandra Villa-Forte, MD, MPH
Cleveland Clinic
Symptoms of Musculoskeletal Disorders , The Human Body , Diagnosis of Musculoskeletal Disorders , Biology of the Musculoskeletal System , Vasculitic Disorders

Eva M. Vivian, PharmD, MS
University of Wisconsin School of Pharmacy
Brand-Name and Generic Drugs

Michael N. Wajdowicz, DDS
USAF|Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
Urgent Dental Problems

Aaron E. Walfish, MD
Mount Sinai Medical Center
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) , Bezoars and Foreign Bodies of the Digestive Tract

B. Timothy Walsh, MD
College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University|New York State Psychiatric Institute
Eating Disorders

Andrew W. Walter, MS, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University|A. I. duPont Hospital for Children
Blood Problems in Newborns

James Wayne Warnica, MD, FRCPC
The University of Calgary
Coronary Artery Disease

Michael R. Wasserman, MD
Los Angeles Jewish Home
Nonspecific Symptoms , Making the Most of Health Care

James C. Watson, MD
Mayo Clinic
Pain

Geoffrey A. Weinberg, MD
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry|Golisano Children’s Hospital
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection in Children , Bacterial Infections in Infants and Children

Geoffrey A. Weinberg, MD
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry|Golisano Children’s Hospital
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection in Children , Bacterial Infections in Infants and Children

Thomas G. Weiser, MD, MPH
Stanford University School of Medicine|University of Edinburgh
Chest Injuries

Thomas G. Weiser, MD, MPH
Stanford University School of Medicine|University of Edinburgh
Chest Injuries

Eric A. Weiss, MD
Stanford University Medical Center, Emeritus|Stanford University Fellowship in Wilderness Medicine
Heat Disorders

Gregory L. Wells, MD
Ada West Dermatology, St. Luke’s Boise Medical Center, and St. Alphonsus Regional Medical Center|Idaho College of Osteopathic Medicine
Skin Cancers

Gregory L. Wells, MD
Ada West Dermatology, St. Luke’s Boise Medical Center, and St. Alphonsus Regional Medical Center|Idaho College of Osteopathic Medicine
Skin Cancers

Brian J. Werth, PharmD
University of Washington School of Pharmacy
Antibiotics

John B. West, MD, PhD, DSc
University of California, San Diego
Altitude Illness

Kendrick Alan Whitney, DPM
Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine
Foot Problems

James E. Wilberger, MD
Drexel University College of Medicine|Allegheny General Hospital|Allegheny Health Network Medical Education Consortium|Allegheny Health Network
Head Injuries , Spinal Injuries

James E. Wilberger, MD
Drexel University College of Medicine|Allegheny General Hospital|Allegheny Health Network Medical Education Consortium|Allegheny Health Network
Head Injuries , Spinal Injuries

Robert A. Wise, MD
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Thomas E. Witzig, MD
Mayo Medical School
Lymphomas

Steven E. Wolf, MD
University of Texas - Southwestern Medical Center
Burns

Steven E. Wolf, MD
University of Texas - Southwestern Medical Center
Burns

Adrienne Youdim, MD
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA|Cedars Sinai Medical Center
Overview of Nutrition , Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome

Lowell S. Young, MD
University of California at San Francisco;Kuzell Institute, California Pacific Medical Center
Bacteremia, Sepsis, and Septic Shock

Thomas M. Yuill, PhD
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Arboviruses, Arenaviruses, Filoviruses

Xuefeng Zhang,
Baylor College of Medicine
Substance-Related Disorders

Zhiwei Zhang, MD
Loma Linda University|VA Loma Linda Healthcare System
Blood Vessel Disorders of the Kidneys

Zhiwei Zhang, MD
Loma Linda University|VA Loma Linda Healthcare System
Blood Vessel Disorders of the Kidneys