Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach and small and large intestines. Most cases are infectious, although gastroenteritis may occur after ingestion of drugs and chemical toxins (eg, metals, plant substances). Acquisition may be foodborne, waterborne, or via person-to-person spread. In the US, an estimated 1 in 6 people contracts foodborne illness each year. Symptoms include anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. Diagnosis is clinical or by stool culture, although polymerase chain reaction testing and immunoassays are increasingly used. Treatment is symptomatic, although some parasitic and some bacterial infections require specific anti-infective therapy.